Rather, humans are able to determine courses of action which will benefit the sum whole of humanity and to perform those behaviors which, in their assessment, create the greatest general good regardless of the personal good created.
The tendency of humans to perform these actions is called benevolence. Finally, there exists a third motivating factor, which must be taken into account to form a proper moral theory; this third factor will be called obligation. Obligation is the result of the social nature of humans. Suffice to say, for now, that obligations are the motivations to perform actions which result from explicit promises regarding what behavior one will engage in.
Obligations have been a key aspect of many influential moral theories. Several great philosophers have heavily relied on the concept of obligations in their moral theories. Perhaps most notably are the ideas of contracts or covenants in Hobbes' Leviathan and Hume's discussion of promises in Of the Obligation of Promises. Both of these philosophers, as well as many others, have developed theories in such a way so as to incorporate obligations, though they often refer to them by another nomenclature, into them.
Hobbes relies heavy on obligations, or covenants as he refers to them. ...