The paper tells that on one hand, free will can be defined as an ability that an individual harnesses or on the other, free will can be constructed as a possession inherent in a person. The reasoning faculty of humans facilitates and empowers free will. Causal events are attributed to the exercise and natural outcomes of free will. If rational human actions are assumed to arise from free will, then that would mean that free will is contingent on those events. That position leads to the belief that a person acting freely essentially manifests the working of his or her free will. The implications of free will are moral responsibility, legal accountability and self-determinism. Self-determinism is a principle founded on free will and self-influenced decision and action. In religion, the possession and exercise of free will places man in a position to either follow the divine will or go against it. Free will makes man liable for his choices and answerable to an authority. Free will also frees man to a certain extent from passivity of man, seing that he is characterized an active moral agent who can make changes in his life and that of others. Philosopher Thomas Hobbes asserts this theory by stating that all free-willed actions are based or influenced by external factors compelling an individual to act. However, one might dispute this approach because these actions are spurred by two distinct types of freedom: freedom of will and freedom of action. The disparity between freedom of will and freedom of action in the context of causality is underlined by the fact that agents can have free will but no freedom of action.3 For example, if a person wants to go to the store and buy an item at the mall, he or she is free to do so. However, if the said individual is tied fast to a chair or does not have the money to buy anything, these conditions directly hinder his liberty to act on his free will. The individual still has the free will to steal the item or attempt to break free from restraint. According to Hobbes’ theory, external factors such as the person’s pressing necessity for that item or someone else’s request have influenced the individual to come to the decision to go to the mall. In both cases, the individual retains the free will to execute the action, nevertheless agencies outside the individual’s control impacts on the final outcome. The fundamental question here is the leveling of responsibility at an individual for actions arising not from his own free will, but from exterior environmental factors over which he has no control. The simple answer would be these individuals are not responsible for their actions, however unpopular this view may be. If one were to introduce a system of reward and punishment to instigate or control action, then, no one can be praised or blamed owing to the incentive or disincentive. 4 However, an exception to Hobbes’ theory lies in the premise of causal determinism proposed by the British analytic philosopher Galen Strawson. The premise implies that current events are fixed outcomes since events are actuated by a cause and the cause
This philosophic research study delves into the theories of free will, determinism, and moral responsibility and shows the relationships, exceptions and disparities among them, primarily within the frame work of compatibilism and incompatibilism…
For instance, a study may be published associating on average a specific gene with a certain quantifiable behavior. The media, upon receiving word of this research, will change the wording of the story in order to sensationalize and sell the story as newsworthy, often relying on words like “cause”.
West European policies of economy between 16th and 18th centuries were largely dominated by the Mercantilism theory. Thus, it can be said that Mercantilism was ingrained in the European economic policies from the Renaissance period to the early years of industrialization.
Selfish motives of the corporate world have given way for more realistic approaches to business. Corporate world have released that the environment and the communities are providing them the resources needed for doing successful business and it is their duty to give something in return to the society and the environment.
For example, one may will to move up and down the room or may will otherwise since options are within his control. An action is therefore originated if it is within the control of agent it does not have to be an agent of certain causal gents. Incompatibilists argue that one aspect of fundamental propositions that there is one common one idea, which is a free action of which an agent may be held morally responsible.
However, nurses encounter several challenges in their profession that requires rapid decision making based or personal judgment and creativity. In nurses undergo different stages in their career from training, to work as inexperienced employees, and then qualified workforce.
According to the paper the role of educators in molding students to become responsible and rational members of the society they live in can therefore not be overlooked. In as much as institutions should have their framework for morality like prayers, guidance and conduct requirements, it is important that the teachers have individual morality objectives.
This posting reported that roughly 60 percent of students in higher education have engaged in plagiarism in some fashion and often do this because they do not fully understand it is wrong. However, by the time an individual reaches the age where higher education is
ding it by discussing the contributions of various mercantilists in the book he wrote in 1776, titled The Wealth of Nations (Niehaus cited in “New World Encyclopedia”). West European policies of economy between 16th and 18th centuries were largely dominated by the
Over the years, there have been theories that have been developed to explain a person’s development in reasoning. These theories are by Kohlberg, Gilligan and Haidt.
Lawrence Kohlberg theory was a modification