Running head: Posture of Reason Plato, Descartes, and Freud’s Take on The Posture of Reason First and Last Name Class Name University Name Abstract By taking an in-depth look into several philosophical theories and theorists this paper attempts to uncover the posture of reason that exists behind philosophical thought…
In an attempt to do just this, a well known philosopher by the name of, Plato, asked the question, “What is a good life for a human being?” This question carries with it the supposition that all humans have at least two of the same built in devices, reason and human nature. It also implies that these two devices steer people toward the same goal or purpose. It is philosophy that undertakes the study of discovering what this purpose is, by turning people away from mere appearance and toward reality. The ultimate goal of any philosopher is to uncover how the world looks objectively instead of subjectively, and from what truly is good instead of what just appears to be good. By the use of reason three theories have been developed by the world’s most prominent philosophers during their attempt to divide what is reality, and what is merely and illusion of reality. The first theory, The Divided Line Theory, was developed by Plato. The second theory, Method of Doubt, was created by Descartes. The final theory, Psychoanalysis, was developed by Freud. By taking an in-depth look into how each philosopher reasoned his conclusion and the similarities and differences each theory contains, one might develop a broad answer to one of philosophy’s most probing questions. Divided Line Theory To develop his, Divided Line Theory, Plato used the reasoning that human beings live in a world of visible and intelligible things. The visible world is made up of those things that surround humans. What they can feel, tough, taste and see. However, Plato states that the visible world is made up of uncertainty. The intelligible world on the other hand is made up of unchanging products of human reason; this would consist of anything arising from reason alone, such as mathematics, or abstract definitions. The intelligible world therefore is made up of eternal “forms” or in Greek “ideas” of things; the visible world, then, is the imperfect and changing manifestation in this world of these unchanging forms. An example would be the Form or Idea of a horse is intelligible, and applies to all horses. This form or idea never changes, even though each horse may vary wildly individually, the form of a horse would never change even if all horses across the world were to disappear. An individual horse, on the other hand, is a physical changing object that can easily case to be a horse. Plato therefore describes these two worlds as existing with a line between them; the intelligible world and the visible world. He says that in the intelligible world one can have knowledge and in the visible world one can have opinion. He then further divides each of the worlds in two. The visible world he divides into illusion which is made up of “shadows” paintings, poetry, etc. and beliefs which is made up of things that can change, such as an individual horse. The intelligible world is then divided into the sub-categories of reason, which is things such as mathematics, and intelligence, which is the understanding of the ultimate good. Plato’s theory differs from Descartes and Freud’s in that he doesn’t attempt to apply it in any way, it is a simple method of grouping aspects of the world to further uncover the ultimate truth. Method of Doubt Descartes Method of ...
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“Plato, Descartes, and Freud'S Take on Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/philosophy/40739-posture-of-reason.
The issue of the soul has always been a center of interest not only to the early philosopher but still is controversial until this time because as Glaucon had been surprised by Socrates’ statement, “Haven’t your realized that our soul is immortal and never destroyed?
It therefore becomes very difficult to have a clear cut difference between Socrates philosophies and Plato’s. The Ontological dualism is one of the philosophies presented by Plato. The philosophy is simply a theory of the ideas. Ontologically speaking, the ideas herein do not only include the real objects but rather, on an epistemological speaking, they comprise authentically objects of knowledge.
Name: Instructor’s Name: Course: Date of Submission: Descartes What is epistemology? If we define it narrowly, it is the study of justified belief and knowledge. If epistemology is considered as a study of knowledge, it deals with the following questions: What are the sufficient and necessary conditions for knowledge?
Nevertheless, although the three sources attempt to ask analogous questions, it is essentially their manner of answering these questions that differentiate them from each other. Plato examines the notion that the real world represents an illusion within the allegory of the cave presented in The Republic.
Something that is beyond doubt is therefore assumed to be true. This was the first of its kind in philosophy, instead of sticking to the common paradigms that were the norms among his contemporaries and those who were there before him like Aristotle and Plato.
Same like the prisoners in the cave, the hero does not realize he is a prisoner. Both the parties are unaware of the reality and are living under a false perception. He like the people in the cave is born under bondage where he cannot smell or taste or touch.
This also creates a need of a power which is practiced by the substance of human person in authority. Some of clarification by philosophers or theologians has made it evident that human person can be defined as a relationship between mind and body or soul and body.
I know, Meno, what you mean You argue that a man cannot enquire either about that which he knows, or about that which he does not know; for if he knows, he has no need to enquire; and if not, he cannot; for he does not know the very subject about which he is to enquire.2
Descarte’s Cartesian dualism separates mind from the soul. For Descartes, a soul is what animates the body and the mind’s job is to think and imagine. Such is why he is being famous of the adage “I think, therefore I am”. Plato differs from Descartes in a manner that he held that soul can think better when it is separated from the body.