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Sparta vs. Athens: Lycurgus vs. Pericles Funeral Oration - Essay Example

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Membership in any political practice such as voting is an important milestone in any society. Segregation of participants in such an exercise puts the society at crossroads, due to the feuding party which feels discriminated against. Such discriminative practice could still help define the fall of such states (Huxley 139–49)…
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Sparta vs. Athens: Lycurgus vs. Pericles Funeral Oration
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Sparta vs. Athens: Lycurgus vs. Pericles Funeral Oration

The paper under consideration analyses the importance of justice overall, as well as presenting the idea of equal justice for all, as seen in the two states to be evaluated, Sparta and Athens. The author discusses the poor treatment of women in society, which comes into focus when we look at these two states. He also describes the two major forms of governance in the ancient Greece, which is democracy practiced in Athens and Oligarchy in Sparta. The bibliography of the paper includes 10 sources.
Introduction:
The importance of justice in building a formidable society cannot be overemphasized. This is because societies that thrive both economically and politically have been known to act in a justice and fair manner (Galston 18-78). Social justice is simply a moral conception and has to do with giving a person or a group of people what belongs to them in terms of entitlement and morality. Injustice breeds rebellion and discomfort. Such a state of mind is dangerous for any nation and thus cannot thrive. The freedom given to a people in terms of equal rights has a major bearing on the success of such a society. The existence of free and equal people in a society, presence of personal and political liberties, giving equal opportunity to all and an aspect of cooperation does benefit a society more (Bates 12-26).
The idea of equal justice for all is seen to be evaluated in these two states. The poor treatment of women in society comes into focus when we look at these two states. Injustices were committed to the female gender and actually what is referred to as equal justice is totally imbalanced (Keyt133–52). ...
There was a general call from the constitution to all men to engage in military education at a tender age of seven for training on being tough and self-sufficient. The individual’s life was meant for the state where one lived and died for it. Any form of foreign trade and travelling was banned from Sparta thus locking out foreign ideas thus giving a chance to aspect of surprise when they attacked (Adams). The democracy enjoyed in Athens was flawed since choice was made on eligibility to serve with limited powers and the idea of expelling the speaker in case such a person became very powerful was a normal practice (Bogotch 301-320). There was blatant abuse of this rule and thus did infringe heavily on those freedoms of speech that could be exercised by the citizens. The male citizens were given equal rights and the government majorly did focus on an individual as opposed to state. It is not surprising that Athenian males had full rights such as voting rights and highest ranks in the society, while women who were citizens were still considered minors. At the age of marriage, the fathers did offer their daughter for marriage where they led indoor lives as wives. They were thus condemned to childbearing, sewing and doing house chores. In the Pericles’ Funeral Oration, we find a very damning contempt of women in public life. In this Oration, many references regarding the equality and justice than could be enjoyed in the Athenian life is expressed. In this Oration, it is clear that women did not share any form of equal rights with the male gender and no reference as such does exist when the Athenian people are mentioned, only male race is known. Metics did not have to own land nor take part in any form of government activity since they were ... Read More
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