The knowledge of our conscious states is usually connected to the perceptual experiences that we go through. Constant thoughts, thirst, hunger, feelings of sadness and anger, pains and itches and somatic sensations are among the inclusions of a conscious mental state (Kim 67). There have been different sets of ideas regarding the mind and the body. Many people have argued and different and separate thoughts and ideas of whether the mind and the body are the same thing or whether they are different and separate. We have been brought up with the idea that we have minds. We are taught in many different ways that we have both minds and bodies and they exist differently. Many people have accepted this fact despite the few people who argue against it. The small number has been increasing due to the several changes in beliefs that have sprouted recently that give evidence contrary to the popular belief. Self-understanding by humans is an important part of philosophy and science. This can be achieved by understanding the place of thought and feeling in the natural world. When trying to understand the natural world, one has to consider the relationship between mental and physical phenomena. There has been a lack of agreement on what really is the relationship between mental and physical phenomena in psychology and this is what is traditionally known as the mind body problem (Cooney 25). It is a philosophical problem that occurs in the fields of metaphysics and philosophy of mind. This problem usually arises because of the difference in the qualitative and substantial characteristics of the mental problem and the physical bodies which the mind depends on. This theory was realized by philosopher Descartes. Mental states have a character which is qualitative in nature. This character is usually known as qualia. When one is aware of his or her conscious state, then the only thing in question is oneself. A distinct and unique feature about our consciousness is that we have knowledge of them which means that when we are conscious, we know we are and we know how we are but we do not infer this knowledge (Dretske 56). Intention is another feature of the mental that is important. It makes the mind directed at something. Desires and beliefs are also an important part of the mental state. These are referred to as propositional attitudes because we can express them. Some mental states usually seem to lack intentions, such as when someone is in a state of anxiety or euphoria. Intentions are usually directed by our desires and beliefs. Physical theory usually changes with time. This means that the current physical theory may go through several changes and revisions. The mind body problem, however, does not change with the changes in the physical theory. The mind body problem has the response of the basic constituents of things that have mental properties. Physical phenomena have three different impressions. The first one is that the position will be classified as a version of physicalism. The second interpretation does not give the option of mental phenomena being reduced to physical phenomena. The third interpretation is that physical phenomenon is exemplified by our current physics. Although theories have been propounded whether the mind is part of the body or separate, its existence cannot be ignored. This can be exemplified by the common language usages such as “What’s on your mind?,” “
ID No. Class Title Date Mind-Body Problem and Freedom and Determinism Problem Overview Descartes suggested that consciousness is a part of the mental part of the mind. Consciousness goes on in every human being’s mind…
However, the motivation behind determinism is to apply that model to even mental phenomena, beyond the physical interactions in the visible universe. Human thoughts and actions as determined by outside events points to a nonexistent free will for human beings.
However, Descartes also admitted in his Meditations that somehow the mind and the body, despite their interdependence, happen to interact with each other and somehow this interaction results in a perceived unity: “…for in truth, I could never be separated from it or from other bodies: I felt in it and on account of it all my appetites and affections [and] I was affected in its parts by pain and the titillation of pleasure” (Descartes 1969:162).
Theories of mind-body are putative solutions to problems associated with mind-body. These mind-body theories can also be referred to as metaphysical theories. Science gives two options of research on the possibility of mind-body problem being interceptable.
Elizabeth and Descartes engaged in a correspondence from 1643 to 1949, and explored a variety of philosophical issues, among them the body-mind problem as well as the principles of geometry and mathematics, and ethics. Letter I: Elizabeth to Descartes, July 1646 This short letter begins with Elizabeth inviting Descartes to a meeting in the Hague, before she leaves for Berlin with her family.
Property Dualism: This view asserts that there is only one kind of substance -physical, but there are two kinds of properties-physical and mental, and that mental properties such as thoughts and emotions exist in some physical substance like the brain.
Ideas on mind/body dualism have been around for a long time, with great philosophers like Plato and Aristotle having views about a "soul" bearing intelligence and wisdom.
Philosophy is divided over whether events are determined and whether freedom can coexist with it. This paper analyzes the concept of free will by analyzing the arguments of determinism and libertarianism on free will.
Determinism believes in a broad definition
Descartes also admitted in his Meditations that somehow the mind and the body, despite their interdependence, happen to interact with each other and somehow this interaction results in a perceived unity: “…for in truth, I could never be separated from it or from other
out the fundamental nature of existence, one that precludes the possibility of the mind and body being reduced to the same material (the contrary belief is known as monism). Considered together, these implications pose a problem as they relate to finding meaning in life. The
Descartes argues that the nature of the mind is completely different from that of the body this makes it possible for an individual to actively exist without an interaction of the entities. His argument has led to one of the most discussed problems in philosophical and other non-philosophical discourse, the problem of the body and the mind.
He emphasizes that language aspects too fall in the same line as one commonly understands phenomena such as electrical force, complex molecules, or visual systems. Thus, the author takes naturalistic approach for mental and
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