[Name of Student] [Name of Lecturer] Philosophy [Date] Perception Dependence Argument Introduction The two elements that are characteristic of any type or form of argument are premise(s) and conclusion(s)1. An argument must therefore begin with one or two premises and end with a conclusion(s)…
For instance, by stating that X=Y and Y=Z, it implies that X=Z. This is an example of logical arguments. However, there are arguments that are based on incorrect principles of logics, leading to logical fallacies and false or illogical conclusions. One type of argument that has attracted a lot of debates and controversy with regards to the truth about its premises and inferences/conclusions is perception-dependent argument. This paper thus evaluates whether the premises of the perception-Dependent Argument are true. In addition, the paper explores whether the argument’s inference are good. Perception Dependent Arguments The awareness or apprehension of one’s environment through senses such as sight, touch, hearing, smell, taste is referred to as perception, a study area that has continued to intrigue not only philosophers but also other scholars since historical times2. One reason perception-dependent arguments have always been considered fallacious is the problem created by the association of perception with hallucinations and illusions. Both hallucination and illusion refer to situations in which a person perceives objects in ways that in which they do not exist. Thus, the possibilities of errors occasioned by illusions and hallucinations make the true nature of arguments based on perception questionable. Because of illusion- and hallucination-related errors, arguments, their premises and inferences, always based on perception, lead to questions on whether perceptions are intuitively what they appear to be. Perceptions could therefore not be directly linked to reality and neither are they necessarily the immediate access to reality. The possibility of hallucination and illusion errors in perception dependent arguments therefore challenges the logical nature of arguments based on perceptions. Illusion refers to a situation in which an object or subject is perceived to appear in way other than it really is. For instance, using a yellow light in a house with white walls make the walls appear have yellow color. Another example of illusion is the sour taste of a sweet drink if consumed immediately after consuming a sweeter drink. It should however be noted that illusion does not imply there is deception since one is not deceived into believing that objects are not what they are. In other words, there is a possibility that one may actually be aware that he/she is experiencing an illusion. From the illusion and hallucination errors that perception dependent arguments are prone to, it is imperative that the obvious truth of peoples’ experiences and the perception-related errors in arguments are reconciled. The perceptual experiences otherwise referred to as openness to the world, which lead to true premises and good inferences in arguments, have been consistently challenged by the existence of illusions and hallucinations. From its definition, it is apparent that basing one’s arguments on illusion will most likely result in false premises and bad conclusions/inferences. Arguments based on perceptions (illusions and hallucinations) always occur through certain steps. When one is under illusion, an object appears to have some characteristic or quality F. In reality, the object under view, feel, taste, or touch does not always have the perceived quality. Interestingly, another object encountered or experienced somewhere by the person under illusion possesses the quality/feature F perceived by the person. In ...
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