Soul and Justice in the works of Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus - Essay Example

Extract of sample
Soul and Justice in the works of Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus

This essay discusses that Plato (428-347 BC) defined the soul’s parts as appetite, spirit, and reason. A just society would also have this structure: the productive (worker) class (appetite part of the soul); the protective (warrior) class (spirit part of the soul); and the governing (ruling) class (reason part of the soul). Individual justice would consist of the appetite part of the soul obeying the reason part, with the aid of the spirit part of the soul. Any deviation from this order would result in an unjust individual or society. Justice to Plato meant harmony with each fulfilling his role. Plato’s ideal city was meant as a model for an individual to set up the government of their soul. Aristotle (384-322 BC), a student of Plato, presents his theory of the soul in “De Anima”. Soul is the incorporeal essence or life-force of a living thing, inseparable from the body and existing as the cause of the body’s movement and of its end. Souls have different parts that different kinds of souls may contain. Plants have souls providing them with nourishment and reproduction. Animals have souls that also enable motion and differing numbers of senses. Humans have all this plus rational soul, which has two parts: the possible intellect, holding all the possible thoughts; and the agent intellect, bringing actual thoughts into act. The mind (agent intellect part of the soul) is immaterial and cannot be corrupted; therefore the mind is immortal. ...
Download paper

Summary

This paper is being carried out to compare and contrast the definitions of soul and justice in the works of Plato, Aristotle, and Epicurus. This paper purports to examine each philosopher chronologically to possibly reveal evolution of views between them. …
Author : winfieldhowell
Download 2

Related Essays

Nature of Justice in the Soul and State
On a personal view, the definition of justice can be logical based on the fact that the three components of the soul can greatly affect the concept of justice. There is only one question in terms of the fact that reason, spirit and appetite can be considered as subjective or personal. This had been answered in the view that the soul is the microcosm of the state. Due to the fact that soul is hard to analyze, the corresponding events in the state can be studied to be able to understand the soul (Republic 436b8–9). With this analogy, it had been considered that by managing the state well, the...
3 pages (753 words) Essay
Plato and Descartes on the Soul.
” to which the former replied, “No, by God, I haven’t. Are you really in the position to assert that?” (Lorenz), is also the modern man’s rebuttal. There perhaps can never be an end to the discussion of the topic until one soul will come and show us all where we could have been wrong and where we could have been right in our arguments about it. As the soul is not a physical being that we can say where it is while we know its existence or can we tell where it has gone or what happens to it when we know its demise. However, although the issue has never been quite resolved,...
4 pages (1004 words) Essay
Justice or moral uprightness of human soul according to Plato
Conversely, Plato (through Socrates) makes the contention that justice and morality are not socially constructed entities, but instead exist objectively. In this instance, humans should adhere to justice and morality regardless of the consequences. This essay considers these points in relation to the Republic and presents my own position on the debate. From the very opening of the Republic Plato sets about establishing the notion of justice and considering why it should be followed. One of the first aspects that are addressed in terms of justice concerns its very nature. In Book I Cephalus...
5 pages (1255 words) Essay
Aristotle and Plato on Realism
When Aristotle and Plato are contrasted, it becomes clear that their efforts were largely responsible for the inclusion of metaphysical inquiry into Western philosophical thought. Both philosophers provided highly differing views on reality and the way it could be conceptualised but this does not serve to indicate that their views were altogether opposed to each other. Instead, there are fine lines where both Plato and Aristotle tend to agree and other areas where they tend to disagree. This paper will explore areas where both philosophers tend to agree on the domain of realism. Plato held...
4 pages (1004 words) Essay
Plato and Aristotle Theories
For example, when we look at an orange, we analyze the particular orange and a universal form of an orange. Moreover, when we place the orange near a plate, we speak of both of them been next to each other. Furthermore, he also argued the existence of “unistantiated universals”. These are universal forms that do not relate to a particular thing. When we speak that there is a particular good in existence, for example, then “good” can be referred as proper universal form (Melchert, 28). However, Aristotle challenged Plato’s argument that the nature of universals is instantiated. He...
3 pages (753 words) Admission Essay
Aristotelian Ethics: Emotion and Moral Virtue
Aristotle is on the side of virtue ethicists. Aristotle argues that moral virtue is about right emotion and right action. The moral individual is generally situated in the middle as regards both. Hence Aristotle explains the premise: the virtuous individual feels “both fear and confidence and appetite and anger and pity and in general pleasure and pain… at the right times, with reference to the right objects, towards the right people, with the right aim, and in the right way” (Broadie 100). Simply put, to have emotions that are controlled and nurtured at the aforementioned ways is a...
5 pages (1255 words) Essay
The Concept of the Soul, by Plato
The passion in these elements sprouts from independent faiths differentiating between what is good or bad. When it comes to the appetite, this is due to the arousal of desires that occur as a reaction to the hormonal or other events that take place inside the body. Lastly, the spirited part of the soul is because of the routine response that develops during the course of ones upbringing. Plato in his book Phaedrus, Plato explains this Tripartite Soul in detail. In this book he describes the human soul which is made up of three elements that follow three specific classes that prevail in the...
3 pages (753 words) Research Paper
Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you! Try us!