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Karl Marx's theories - Essay Example

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Workers are alienated from the activity of working. The employers assign their employees their tasks. This means that the work actually belongs to those who are in authority. Workers are alienated from the chance to understand humanity. An example includes those workers who pollute the environment, the factory workers. They are causing harm to the world they inhabit. Workers are also alienated from each other. This occurs as the workers undergo competitions in order to win over certain positions in a labor marketplace. According to utilitarian view, those actions for a problem are considered correct which offer more benefits to the society as compared to the benefits offered by other actions conducted in the same situation (Russell 1959, 65). Actions should be considered right or wrong according to costs and benefits associated with them. Those offering more costs than benefits are considered wrong and vice versa. Through out the world, child labor is unanimously opposed. However, it does exist in certain countries because if children do not earn, the entire family suffers. In such situations, child labor is considered right as it has more benefits than adverse effects. Categorical imperative states that actions are morally correct if the reason behind them is that the person who is conducting that action in a situation is ready to accept the same action conducted upon him (Hegel 1956, 167). An example is that an employer can only discriminate between his employees (on the basis of color, race and ethnicity) if he is ready to accept his supervisor practicing the same kind of behavior with him. Theodicy explains why an ideal, almighty God, who has knowledge about everything, allows immorality and sin. This is a justification of a Divine existence. According to Saint Thomas, evil is misery, it exists where goodness does not. There is no optimism which gives rise to evil so God can not be held responsible for the evil that exists in the universe. Evil does not exist as an objective notion but as a subjective one. It’s not an inherent quality; rather, people show iniquity and injustice in relation to others. Everything real in this world is in fact good; but these realities end up being evil due to some incident. The original reason of evil is good, even the subjects in which evil is identified. Augustine’s sayings are agreed upon by only a few (Rachels 2010, 300). The dispute is a result of the vagueness of his work. Individuals have a free will to choose between right and wrong. Certainly, free will exists. He even stated that the individuals are saved by God from doing evil and the decision to save them is taken even before individuals are born. One can lead a life of self-control and determination but if God does not wish to save him from evil, his free-will holds no importance. This implies that a person who experiences something unpleasant but is chosen by God will be saved no matter what he does. God is not related to malevolence as He is only the Creator of righteousness. The humans (or angels) transgress the bounds of goodness and commit sins. The contradistinction arises as free will does not support the fact that God is accountable for all good. People are not acknowledged for their goodness but only for their wrong doings. The free will of people is influenced by their needs, wishes and lust. Indeed, J.L Mackie ...Show more
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Summary

University Name Philosophy Karl Marx presented a comprehensive discussion on the forms of alienation. The workers are estranged from the type of work they do. The workers are brought against the capitalists as they generate excess value so the capitalists are authorized against them…
Karl Marxs theories
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