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Reconstruct/Explain/Criticize an argument - Essay Example

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It is a theory that argues against the means; happiness in this case, justifies the end. According to Kant, people should not be judged by the consequences of their action, which is to mean that the results of an action should not apply in determining whether something is right or wrong. Thus, according to Kant, the motives the person had behind their actions ought to be used to measure whether an act is right or wrong. Utilitarianism, on the other hand, is a discipline of thought that argues that the result of an action ought to justify the means through which the end was achieved. This theory is a consequential theory based on the universal aggregate happiness. That is to state that, utilitarianism focuses on maximizing utility of any action, or doing what causes most pleasure to as many as possible, with less suffering to the majority. This theory is in complete contrast to Kant’s theory that many refer to as deontological. That is to mean that one’s actions ought to be guided by moral principles and duty, and not the consequences of the action. In summary, Kant believes that people do what is right because it is the right course of action regardless of the consequences; while utilitarianism states that it is the good consequences that drive people do what is right. Question One 1. ...
A Discussion According to Utilitarianism, the actions of a Peeping Tom, who takes pictures of a naked Ms. York, are right in view of the consequences of the actions. This is to imply that, since the actions are unknown to Ms. York, then she has no cause to worry about Peeping Tom’s actions, as long as such pictures remain in the hands of Peeping Tom. The validity of this argument under Utilitarianism is purely on the basis that the pictures cause happiness to Peeping Tom, alone without any suffering on the part of Ms. York or any other third party. Therefore, for this theory to apply effectively, the party whose rights are being infringed upon ought to be completely unaware of the infringement. Conversely, the infringing party must take such an action for collective good of self or many while at the same time causing as little suffering as possible. The basis of this argument is that individuals take actions guided by the consequences of either pleasure or pain. It is the results, rewards, or consequences of one’s actions that drives them to participate in any act in life. Critique The theory of Utilitarianism argues that the good consequences of one’s actions are what motivate a person into doing whatever they undertake in life. Therefore, the actions from an individual ought to cause happiness for the majority. Considering the actions of Peeping Tom, the consequences of his actions have a negative impact on the privacy of Ms. York. To put this into a better perspective, it is the moral duty for anyone to respect the privacy of their neighbor. Therefore, going through the moral code of ethics, it is not acceptable to take nude pictures from an individual without explicit consent. Kant states that the consequences of one’s actions ought to not apply when ...Show more


First Name, Last Tutor: Introduction Kant’s philosophy draws its basis from the universal rule that a majority of people call the golden rule and that is one should do to other people what they expect people to do back…
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Reconstruct/Explain/Criticize an argument essay example
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