With the epidemic spread of the disease, the researchers, epidemiologists, and healthcare professionals were in dire necessity of funds to develop tools to contain the disease, but they were denied funds due mainly to political lobbyists. When a statement from the government would have oriented people to the appropriate directions, rather than effective leadership to consolidate the approaches against AIDS, the authority took an unscientific standpoint to relate AIDS to particular sexual behaviors. This was a politically directed move to discriminate against people with AIDS. The government rather than concentrating on preventive measures or AIDS education, being politically mobilized by the born-again Christian Republican conservatives embraced a deeply reactionary social move.When the government chose to take steps, by that time AIDS was established epidemic in USA.
B. The outbreak of SARS was the result of ineffective government policies at the national level, mainly due to economic reasons. Normal domestic response to an emerging epidemic should be effective gathering of information and transmission of that data to appropriate specialists to assess that. Fears that disclosure of SARS would affect tourism and business and danger that both of these would affect economy, made China to make a delayed disclosure of this atypical illness. This delay had already caused the spread of the disease until the attention of the international community was attracted to this. The economic interests caused lack on transparency by the Chinese Government. The global spread of the disease is attributed to poor transparency of this government.
In the case of an outbreak, performance of basic public health functions is important to trace contacts for sick patients. This needs a very strong economy of the country, and aggressive steps in this context would need costly steps and surge of extra fund. Many countries lack such amenities mainly due to economic reason. This fuels the spread of the epidemic.
The fear of diversion of foreign direct investment in the geographic region is not unreal, and SARS led to foreign divestments in China.
4A. The Embden-Meyerhof Pathway or Glycolysis: In this pathway, a series of enzymatic chemical reactions lead to conversion of sugars to pyruvate resulting in ATP production.
Glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate, the ATP in the cell acts a phosphate donor, and it is transformed into ADP. By a reversible reaction, glucose-6-phosphate converts to fructose-6-phosphate. Fructose-6-phosphate, in turn, is phosphorylated at 1 position of the carbon chain of the fructose-6-phosphate. This phosphate is derived from another molecule of ATP, which gives one phosphate radicle and is changed to ADP. The fructose-6-phosphate is converted to fructose-1-6-biphosphate. This marks the end of 6-carbon stage of the reaction.
Next, an enzyme, aldolase acts on fructose-1-6-biphosphate to form glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which are interconvertible by a reversible reaction between them. In this step, another phosphate is incorporated into glyceraldehyde-3-phaosphate by mediation of NAD to result in 1,3 biphosphoglycerate. In this process, one H+ ion is incorporated into NAD to form NADH. Next, a substrate-level phosphorylation occurs. This splits one phosphate from the 1,3 biphosphoglycerate to tag it to ADP, generating one molecule of ATP. Biphosphoglycerate is converted into 3-phosphoglycerate that reversibly forms