In early 18th Century, there were only a few different schools of thoughts that participated in psychological studies, however, the number of psychological topics that are currently studied have significantly grown over the past two decades…
Every topic in psychology is a subject to scrutiny, since different psychologists perceive these topics differently. This paper describes the various perspectives of modern theories of human behavior in the field of psychology. The six modern theories of human behaviors that are discussed in this article include biological, cognitive, humanistic, psychodynamic, behaviorism and sociocultural theories. As part of this paper, my personal impressions about these theories are also discussed. The Biological Perspective Psychology has been studied as a separate science, facilitated by physiological studies. This study is currently known as biopsychology or biological psychology. This theory emphasizes on the biological and physical bases of behavior. This theory has significantly grown over the past few decades, and this is due to the abilities of psychologists, and doctors to understand and explore the human nervous system and brain. Instruments such as PET scans and MRI scans enable researchers to observe the brain under different conditions. Researchers can, therefore, determine the effects of drugs, diseases and damages on the brain, which were not possible to understand in the past decades. According to biological perspective, human beings are controlled by their genes together with peripheral nervous system, central nervous system and endocrine system. Charles Darwin also argued that, human beings and other animals psychologically and physically adapt to their environment. Common emotions such as aggregation can be discussed and explained due to genetics and physiology (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2009). The cognitive Perspective This theory began to gain applications in 1960s. It is currently known as “cognitive revolution”, and it focuses on mental processes such as thinking, memory, decision-making, memory and language (Mandler, 2005). This theory was significantly influenced by psychologists Albert Bandura and Jean Piaget, and it has currently gained an increased use in studying various human behaviors. Piaget is the foremost pioneer of this theory. The Humanistic Perspective Humanistic psychology is a school of thought that emerged in 1950s. It was influenced by prominent humanists like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. This theory stresses on the roles of motivation on behavior and thought. Maslow’s concept of self-actualization is a vital part of this theory. Maslow suggests that there are certain needs that every individual must satisfy in a hierarchical fashion, beginning from the lowest to the highest. These include basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and self-Actualization (Weiten, 2010). Carl Rogers believes everybody operates from a distinct frame of references in terms of building their self concept and self regard. The Psychodynamic Perspective The origin of this perspective is attributed to the earlier work of Sigmund Freud. This theory focuses on the role of the early childhood experiences, interpersonal relationships, and unconscious mind to describe human behavior, and treat patients suffering from mental and psychological problems (Weiten, 2010). Freud feels that the human mind resembles an iceberg. Patients can gain extraordinary memories and consciousness if they are left freely to associate with others. The exposed upper part of the iceberg is like conscious awareness, and the submerged part is the ...
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