lthugh nt every study exmining the questin f whether depressed individuls hve this explntry style hs crrbrted this hypthesis, there hve been lrge number f supprtive studies. Indeed, Sweeney, ndersn, nd Biley (1986) cnducted met-nlysis f 104 studies nd cncluded tht there ws strng supprt fr the link between the pessimistic explntry style fr negtive events nd depressin, nd wek t mderte supprt fr the link between the pessimistic style fr psitive events nd depressin.
Lerned helplessness is phenmenn cntining three cmpnents: cntingency, cgnitin, nd behvir. Cntingency ddresses the uncntrllbility f the situtin. Cgnitin refers t the ttributins tht peple mke regrding their situtin r surrundings f which they re prt. Behvir llws individuls t decide whether they will give up r prceed with the bstcle set befre them (Petersn, Mier, & Seligmn, 1993).
When peple experience lerned helplessness, they hve tendency t give up esily r fil mre ften t smewht esier tsks. Lerned helplessness is mre likely t result frm situtins where filure is uncntrllble. Fr exmple, Gernign, Fleurnce, nd Reine (2000) cnducted study n filure in cntrlled nd uncntrlled circumstnces. They fund tht filure ws mre likely t ccur in uncntrllble circumstnces.
nther study, cnducted by Stiensmieier-Pelster nd Schurmnn (1989), ddressed filure in terms f blming the results n internl r ext ...