The objectives of the study are clearly in line with the literature review which is a good research writing quality (Huck, 2011). A strong theory strengthens the study since it renders the paper with an explicit statement of assumptions while also specifying the key variables involved in the process under study. Theoretical reference is missing altogether in this paper. Lazarus (1966) theory of stress could have been useful to build the theoretical framework for this study since it explains selective appraisal of stressful situations; and the selective choice of coping strategies depend on these appraisals and individual differences. According to Huck (2011), it is easy to compare the findings against hypotheses if available. The researcher offers two hypotheses in the introduction, both non directional. The study aims at establishing the relationship of the types of coping strategies with negative situations and with direct enhancement of the experience of a positive emotion. The criterion variable is the type of coping strategy and predictor variables are negative events and enhancement of experience of a positive emotion (Bordens & Abbott, 2005). 2. METHODS The research uses a purely quantitative, non experimental design and relies upon a descriptive research methodology drawing on correlational research. Correlational research consists of research designs created to study the relationship between two or more variables. If such a research is used for prediction, than one variable is criterion variable and the other is predictor (Bordens & Abbott, 2005). The design serves the purpose of the study well, however the scope of this study could have been broadened if a qualitative, exploratory approach had also been added to it. According to Graham & colleagues (1989; Cited in Hasse-Biber, 2010), using a mixed method approach serves the following five purposes: tirangularization of results; complimenting the results; development of a concept; initiation of some new theses and expansion of existing ones. The benefits and applications of a study are enhanced if a mixed research methodology is used. According to Onwuegbuzie & McLean (2003), in addition to qualitative studies, quantitative studies must also be screened and checked for external as well as internal validity. In this study, the measures used are valid and the coding was undertaken by hypothesis blind researchers to ensure the validity of results; however, the third variable issue is applicable (Bordens & Abbott, 2005). 3. SAMPLING The participants for this study were 148 students enrolled in a psychology class at a West Coast University and they took part in this study as a class exercise. No target population has been specified as such by the researcher. According to Huck (2011), a full description of the participants should be part of a research paper. The author has accordingly added all details of participants including their mean age, gender distribution and ethnicity. This type of sampling is non probability and falls in the category of convenience sampling, non probability sampling is inferior to probability sampling since the results obtained from a non probability sample are less generalizable (Housden, 2006). According to Steinberg (2011), a large sample size yields more reliable correlations. The sample size of 148 with a response rate of 62% seems appropriate to yield a dependable correlation. 38% participants that were lost during the study were those who either did not return their coping diaries or whose diaries were un-codable. The study
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The study titled ‘Silver linings and candles in the dark’ was conducted by Shiota. The purpose of the study has been stated as to identify whether or not people use positive coping strategies in negative situations selectively. The literature review is comprehensive yet precisely written and provides a direction and rationale for study;…
The study did not have any hypotheses. The independent variables are the stressors and the dependent variables are the coping styles.
There is no separate chapter on literature review and Shiota did not provide a theoretical framework.
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