His arguments were clear and simple, he stated that two major sources of sharia, the Quran and Sunnah did not demand or altogether reject the caliphate, secondly there was no ijma done by the scholars upon the necessity of keeping caliphate, thirdly, caliphate had only brought disasters in the Muslim world and there were no logical arguments to re-establish it. The book also criticized rulers who used the Islamic laws in order to form a political guideline and rules for the ruling authorities. Furthermore, the book stated that the role of Prophet Muhammad was solely as religious spiritual teacher and nothing near to as a political leader. These statements called on for huge debates and unrest between different groups of Islamic world.
Al-Raziq has been declared as the father of secularism of the state and not only the society, in Islamic governance. Secularism separates a state from all religious linkages and allows people from different religions to be treated equally by law regardless of religion by the ruling authority or the majority of the country’s population.
Al-Raziq never called keeping an Islamic government unlawful; he furthermore declared that Muslims altogether may agree to any form of government they want to keep as long it kept the common interest of the society they are ruling in their mind. This shows that altogether, al-Raziq had a very humanistic approach towards formation of government and supported democracy.
Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini was born in the early 1900’s and is famous for founding the first ever Islamic government called Islamic Republic or Iran. He was a politician and a revolutionary, the brains behind the Iranian Revolution that took place in 1979. After the Shah of Iran was overthrown, Khomeini became the sole ruler of the country and created a constitution solely on the bases of Islam and its