StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Carbohydrate - Essay Example

Not dowloaded yet
The apparent simplicity of these processes proved deceptive. The number of chemically definable units increased with accelerated speed from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Toward its end, the very multiplicity which sometimes became confusing made it possible to solve many problems. The genius of the great "natural philosophers" of earlier times had its successors in the genius of chemists who constructed a new unity by fitting together separate pieces of special experience. At first, however, the organismic products had to be taken apart and transferred from a biological system to that of elements and molecules.
In 1827 William Prout (1785- 1850) distinguished between three groups of food materials: fats, proteins, and sugars. From the combustion of sugars which he carried out he concluded that sugars are related to starch and characterized by containing oxygen and hydrogen in the proportions in which these elements are present in water. They are hydrates of carbon, or carbohydrates.
The conversion of starch into the sugar found in grape juice (glucose) was carried out by Gottlieb Sigismund Kirchhoff, a German pharmacist in Russia, in two ways: by heating with dilute sulfuric acid or by digesting with the "gluten" of malt (1811, 1814). Glucose was also obtained by the action of certain specific plant extracts on substances like amygdaline or salicin. Latirent proposed to call these substances "glucosamides" (1852) which Gerhardt simplified to "glycosides." They are split by enzymes into glucose and such complex materials as the nitrile of benzaldehyde (Foster-Powell, K., Brand Miller, 1995).
When Alexander Butlerow (1828- 1886, Kasan) subjected a new substance, which was later found to be formaldehyde, to a digestion with limewater, he obtained (1861) "the first example of the synthetic production of a substance which behaves like a sugar." Baeyer explained this reaction (1870) as starting from a hydrate of formaldehyde, CH 2 ((OH) 2, and consisting of a combination of six such molecules with removal of six molecules of water. The sugar thus had the formula COH(C [OH] H) 4.CH 2 0H. This speculation used the results of an investigation of mannit, an alcohol obtained from manna. Berthelot, as a sequence of his work on the tribasic alcohol glycerine, recognized mannit as a hexabasic alcohol 1860); its reduction to the hydrocarbon hexane, by means of hydroiodic acid, proved the arrangement of the carbon atoms in a straight chain. This proof, in turn, was possible only because of the comparison of this hexane with other hydrocarbons.
A. Wurtz applied his findings of aldehyde condensations, in which only two aldehyde molecules were involved, to the problem of the constitution of glucose. Oxidations to sugar acids and reduction to mannit were further helps in solving the problem. The chemical constitution of fructose, which is combined with glucose in cane sugar (sucrose), could be interpreted (1880) from the acids obtained by oxidizing the addition compound with hydrocyanic acid (Foster-Powell, Miller, 1995).
Cellulose also belongs to the group of carbohydrates, since the addition of molecular water, under the influence of strong sulfuric acid, converts it into glucose (Braconnot, 1819). Wood contains a large proportion of cellulose and lignin. The two call be separated, according to Anselme Payen ( 1795- 1871, ...Show more

Summary

Nature seems to have made it difficult for the chemist to carry out his work of preparing and separating substances which can find a place in his scientific system. On the other hand, the naturally separated units of organisms and their organs are often characterized by special substances so that the chemist's work can easily be based on these biological units…
Author : pbogan
Carbohydrate essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Carbohydrate"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Related Essays

Carbohydrate Nutrition and Glucose Homeostasis,on Type 2 diabetes
This is because one of the risks of acquiring this disease is that it may lead to the development of heart disease as well as disease of the blood vessel. Furthermore, there is also the risk of the development of high blood pressure among those who have diabetes.
8 pages (2000 words) Essay
Case Study
The packaging of Pure Blonde with the green European Style bottle and gold stylish label appeal the customers in a very effective manner. In 2010, with the entrants of new competitors with similar brand image and product features like low carbohydrate enter the market, Pure Blonde’s started to lose its market share.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Protein, Lipid and Carbohydrate Digestion
This is done through the help of biological catalysts known as enzymes. Without these chemicals, our body cannot absorb the large molecules of food. Digestion starts in the mouth where the food is mechanically broken down into tidbits. Then it is passed onto the stomach by way of the pharynx and the esophagus.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Carbohydrate Diets
The subjects were given low, medium and high carbohydrate diet for high, median and low glycemic index before 2 hours of experiment. 10%, 40% and 70% of carbohydrate levels are considered as low, medium and high levels and is given at that percentages to the body weight of the subjects.
50 pages (12500 words) Essay
Dieting
Several kinds of diets are present, while some of them use dieting for losing weight others use dieting to gain weight. A weight-loss diet restricts the intake of specific foods, or food in general, to reduce body weight. For instance, a low carbohydrate diet restricts the intake of carbohydrate.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Nutritional Report: The Effect of a Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on 20 mile Cycle Time Trial Performance
The RPE rate was also found to have increased and the increase of the RPE at a steady state is a positive indicator of good intensity of exercise. Thus the Cho mouth rinsing during a 1 hour time trial performance has helped Steve to increase the intensity of the exercise.
16 pages (4000 words) Essay
Low-Carbohydrate Diets
article explained the theory, “the philosophy of low-carb diets is that when the cravings have subsided, not only will carbohydrate intake be substantially lower, but food intake in general will decline, resulting in weight loss” (Hanlon, n.d., para.3).However, it is better
1 pages (250 words) Essay
High Carbohydrated food
Lack of awareness, as a result, becomes the major factor that encourages them to regularly take high-carbohydrate diets. The risk of taking high-carbohydrate diets lies in the wrong diet selection, which end up with
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Low carbohydrates diets lead to weight loss transformation, but leave lasting harms of mental illness and depression
Many opt for a low carbohydrate diet thereby drastically reducing their energy intake. When the energy taken is far below that is used the weight also reduces since the fat is metabolized to release energy. However even though
12 pages (3000 words) Essay
Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance
As such, case studies of other scholars are used as the means of collecting data and making the various inferences related to the issue of CHO and endurance exercise performance. Study findings indicated that CHO influences
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Get a custom paper written
by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Rate this paper:
Thank you! Your comment has been sent and will be posted after moderation