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Jane David is a 35-year-old female who presented with the complaint of feeling unwell for 2 to 3 weeks. On questioning, it appeared that her symptoms are vague. She complains of loss of energy and feeling generally unwell. …
She also states that she is now passing much less urine than her usual. It was also revealed that she is slightly nauseous and has no appetite. Despite these, she is feeling heavy. Student nurses suggested she has probably urinary tract infection (UTI).Symptomatic acute bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections treated by health care professionals. Cystitis accounts for most of these, whereas more than 100,000 patients are admitted to a hospital annually for acute pyelonephritis treatment. Women have many more UTIs than men. Bacteria ascending from the colonized urethra enter the bladder and perhaps the kidneys. The short length of the female urethra allows easier access by bacteria to the bladder. Contributing to contamination, the warm moist vulva and rectum are both in close proximity. Similarly, sexual intercourse increases bladder inoculation. Infections result from the interaction between bacteria and host. Bacterial virulence factors are important, as they enhance colonization and invasion of the lower and upper urinary tract. The principal virulence factor is increased adherence to either vaginal or uroepithelial cells. The bacterial species most frequently recovered from infected urine culture is Escherichia coli.Bacterial cystitis almost always results from the entry of bacteria colonizing the anterior urethra and periurethral skin into the bladder. ...
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