Reproductive cloning means the creation of a newborn human or other animal that is an exact duplication of an existing person or animal. This involves removing the DNA from an embryo and replacing it with the DNA from a cell removed from an individual. Then the embryo would be implanted in the uterus of a woman with the intent of it developing into a fetus and eventually a newborn whose DNA is identical to that of the original individual. This method has been used to clone a sheep. This method is also known as adult DNA cloning.
Therapeutic cloning is also called biomedical cloning, research cloning or somatic cell nuclear transfer. It means the creation of pre-embryos in order to extract their stem cells and create a human organ. It involves the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer in which the nucleus of a cell from a human patient's body is injected into a human ovum which has had its nucleus removed. The goal of therapeutic cloning is to obtain stem cells which can be developed into organs for transplant that have an identical DNA structure to the organ recipient. It does not involve the attempt to create a newborn. (Terminology. First two Paras). As the two terms are causing confusion among the general public, some people have been suggesting that the term 'therapeutic cloning' should be addressed as somatic cell nuclear transfer.
The positive benefits
Though the issue of stem cell research and cloning are highly controversial, present and further research will only benefit the humanity. Protagonists of cloning argue that there is a great scope for the social, physical and economical progress of the humanity through research in therapeutic cloning. Organ cloning can terminate deadly illnesses and save precious human lives. Its utilities in medical field are immense and innumerable. Some of them are as follows.
1. Progress in this field can help infertile couples have children through cloning. With treatment the infertile couples can develop the ability to conceive.
2. Cloning research in the field can be utilized for replicating skin and nerve cells to repair damaged ones or replace non-existent ones.
3. If therapeutic cloning using embryos is successful, then perfectly matched replacement organs could become freely available to sick and dying people. (What are its possible benefits First Para). And that would save countless numbers of lives, and increase the quality of life of countless others. Three possible medical examples of therapeutic cloning are: 1.The use of insulin-secreting cells for diabetes.2. The use of nerve cells in stroke or Parkinson's disease.3. The use of liver cells to repair a damaged organ. Organ development and plantation through therapeutic cloning would have some more benefits when compared to regular organ transplant donated by someone. For any organ transplantation, no other person would have to lose his/her organ. Patients would not have to wait for long for some organ to arrive but at the same time they would have the advantage of having a new