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# History of the Universe - Essay Example

## Extract of sampleHistory of the Universe

c) Another hydrogen atom sits in the bound state characterized by the -0.38eV energy level. It subsequently absorbs a photon of energy 5eV. In one or two sentences describe what happens to the atom. When the -.38eV electron absorbed a 5eV photon, the electron would become unbound and the atom would ionize.
d) In one or two sentences explain how the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation corresponding to photons of visible light. Electromagnetic wavelength is inversely proportional to the photon energy emitted. When the energy is such that it falls between 656nm (red) and 410nm (violet), this is the visible spectrum.
a) In one or two sentences explain whether the gravitational and electromagnetic forces between the two nuclei are attractive or repulsive. The gravitational force is attractive and the electromagnetic force is repulsive.
b) If the nitrogen-16 nucleus is replaced by a second oxygen-16 nucleus explain in one or two sentences how the strength of each of the two forces discussed above would change if at all. Be as quantitative as you can with your answer. The gravitational force would remain the same due to the same atomic mass. The repulsive electromagnetic force would proportionally increase with the addition of a proton in the nucleus.
c) State a way in which you could reduce the strength of the electromagnet...
Be as quantitative as you can with your answer. The gravitational force would remain the same due to the same atomic mass. The repulsive electromagnetic force would proportionally increase with the addition of a proton in the nucleus.

c) State a way in which you could reduce the strength of the electromagnetic force between the two oxygen-16 nuclei to zero but leave the strength of the gravitational force between the two nuclei virtually unchanged. Adding the 8 orbital electrons to the model would cancel the electromagnetic forces and would leave the gravitational attraction unchanged due to the electrons negligible mass.
Question B3

a) Give the names of the types of object that represent the three possibilities that a star can become at the end of its life. A star may become a dwarf (White, brown,black), a super-nova, or collapse into a black hole.

b) In no more than 100 words explain why massive stars come to an end of their lives and what happens to the star as the end point is reached. Massive stars burn their fuel more rapidly. As they continue their evolution, fusion produces heavier elements and each successive stage provides fuel for the next stage. As they reach their final stage with an iron core, the iron is too compact to fuse into heavier elements. Gravity overwhelms the equilibrium of the star causing it to collapse. The rapid contraction causes the star's core to rebound into a core-collapse supernova.

c) In no more that 100 words explain why the way in which massive stars die is important for the chemical evolution of the universe. Massive stars fuse lighter elements into heavier elements such as helium, carbon, ...Show more

## Summary

b) A particular hydrogen atom makes a transition from the energy level at -0.38eV to the energy level at -0.54eV. State whether a proton is emitted or absorbed in this process and in one sentence justify your answer. What is the energy of the photon involved in this process Which part of the electromagnetic spectrum does a photon of this energy correspond to
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