The four approaches to knowledge are: scientific approach, authoritarian mode, mystical mode and rationalistic approach. In scientific approach environment is the source of knowledge whereas in authoritarian, those who wield social or political power are the source of…
For example, in deductive explanation, if God is good, and murder is bad, then murders are not Godly. A probabilistic explanation example is that if it rains every 3 days a week in June, it is likely that June will have only 10 rainy days.
4. The aims of science are to generate knowledge, allow critique, analysis and explanation of claims of a body of knowledge. Science also aims to encourage logical predictions and understanding of phenomena.
5. In prediction, knowledge is sought based on previous trends. Unlike explanation, prediction does not delve into systematic analysis of precedent factors that affect the process of body of knowledge. That way, it is reverse process of explanation.
6. In Verstehen tradition claims that the understanding of social sciences must be analyzed through the prism of human behavior subjectively. On the other hand, predictive understanding argues that logical conclusions can be drawn objectively without approach social study subjectively.
7. In order for knowledge in general and scientific methodology to be intersubjective, there has to be transmissibility between the two approaches used in gaining knowledge. That is to mean that either can inform the other owing to an assumption that their methodology remains irreproachable, e.g. both being self-critical and highly analytical so that their conclusions are reliable.
8. What the authors term “scientific revolution” is a paradigm that transforms developments abruptly rather than gradually, ideas that related to normal science. Such paradigm transforms the existing body of knowledge.
9. Kuhn’s descriptive view of science is that a rival paradigm that introduces transformation is the dominant one whereas Popper’s prescriptive theory suggests that all paradigms should be acceptable as equal without assigning them superiority statuses.
2. Conceptual definitions are those whose major aim is to ...
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