In addition to social places such as parks, correctional facilities and the criminal justice system also evidence the rampant racial discrimination in the US. Although the minorities, especially blacks account for quite a small percentage of the U.S. population, they form the majority of prisoners in the correctional facilities (Anderson, 4). Racial discrimination against minorities is also seen in racial profiling of minorities, especially Black Americans and Latino youths, who are often racially criminally profiled. Although the government does not formalize racial policies, these practices are always executed illegally. At the workplace, discrimination is evident in job applications and enlisting. In study conducted by researchers Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan of the University of Chicago and MIT in 2004, it was reported that those perceived to be black, just by the sound of their names, were 50% less likely to be called for interviews. On the other hand, white applicants had a more than 50% chance of being called for interviews. Similar studies have concurred that black applicants received calls for interviews at half the rate for white applicants.
On the other hand, there are instances in which whites have been discriminated against (Anderson 4). For example, in the justice system’s courts and other institutions, discrimination against whites have been upheld to ensure that minorities are absorbed to yield diverse workplace and educational surroundings (Anderson 5). Hence, while efforts are underway to curtail racial discrimination, there seems to be an unconscious biasness that favors the majority white population at the peril of the minorities. 2. From your readings in chapter 13 what is "stacking" as a form of discrimination in sports. Summarize the evidence and give examples of where it has existed in sports. Recent studies have unearthed quite a lot of evidences of discrimination in professional sporting activities across the globe. However, little has been done to understand the origin of this practice, making quite difficult to reduce or eliminate it. As a matter of fact, this practice started with the end of slavery in 1863 after which racism crawled into society and sports. In the past, participation and levels of performance of minority races such as Blacks, Indians, Natives, and Hispanics was restricted (Anderson 6). In addition, minority races were often drawn to pay against each other, especially in games such as wrestling and boxing. What is more, these fights pitting minority races were meant to amuse a majorly white audience. Stacking would also be seen whenever Black Americans would be made to race as jockeys while their white counterparts owned horses. As racisms and other forms of discrimination grew, racial minority’s athletes would not be allowed to participate in professional leagues with white athletes refusing to be pitted against black athletes in field races and boxing matches (Anderson 6). The restrictions on minority races’ participation in big leagues culminated in the 1888 gentlemen’s agreement in which clubs were not allowed to sign black players. Although these practices may have been quite rampant in the past, they exist in modern day professional sporting world, albeit to a lesser extent. That is, studies have found out that some