Factors bearing on truancy are diverse. The choice to begin truanting is a very crucial concern. Normally, students choose to begin ‘skipping’ school mostly due to the following factors (Reid, 2000, 76):
(1) avoiding a potentially difficult situation (e.g. bullying);
(2) sending out a signal that they need help or are, in some other way, at risk;
(3) overwhelmed by their home or social circumstances;
(4) psychologically distressed;
(5) at a point of no return, perhaps at the end of their tether;
(6) seriously disenchanted with school, a teacher or fellow pupils;
(7) struggling with their schoolwork;
(8) unwell; and
(9) under peer pressure to miss school
These factors are educational, psychological, or social. Every truant has a certain extent of educational, psychological, and social justifications for skipping school (Reid, 2000). Nevertheless, the primary ‘motivation’ for absenteeism is a single event which could be educational, psychological, or social.
Once truants transition from the irregular to the continual phase, the number of grounds used to rationalize the truancy are probable to escalate greatly. While there could be a single explicit ‘motivator’ for the start of truant activities, truants will provide all forms of additional bases to rationalize their behavior by the time it has arrived at the continual phase (Gump, 2004)....
These measures are normally manifested by school aversion, absence of belongingness, and sense of estrangement (Butts, 2009). According to Stover (2005), big cities frequently report invalid non-attendances in vast numbers of students on particular days. Big schools, according to McPartland and colleagues (1998), are more probable to have issues with absenteeism than small schools. Inopportunely, schools frequently try to deal with a truancy issue with punitive exclusion, which could aggravate the truant behavior and detachment. Truancy is normally related to four primary factors (Zhang, Katsiyannis & Barrett, 2007, 244): (1) family factors (e.g., lack of parental supervision, domestic violence, and substance abuse); (2) school factors (e.g., school climate issues, school size, attitudes, inflexibility in meeting the diverse cultural learning needs of the students, and consequences of absenteeism such as out-of-school suspensions); (3) economic influences (e.g., single-parent homes, high mobility rates, and student employment; and (4) student variables (e.g., substance abuse, lack of social competence, and mental and physical health problems. Furthermore, truant behavior can be also attributed to inadequacy of community assistance or support. Truancy may lead to serious temporary outcomes, such as grief, family conflict, social isolation, legal problems, and weakening academic performance (Stover, 2005). In addition, truancy is the initial indication of ‘deviancy’ and the strongest predictor of aberrant conduct. In fact, persistent truancy in the elementary level is associated with severe antisocial conduct at age 12 and below (Zhang et al., 2007, 244). Moreover, first-grade absenteeism has been reported to radically impact aggression