To answer these questions satisfactorily, one needs to know what Propaganda is, as also what is meant by stereotypes.Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.And what are stereotypes The propagandist frequently tries to influence his audience by substituting favorable or unfavorable terms with an emotional connotation for neutral ones (J.A.C. Brown, "Techniques of Persuasion, Propaganda and Communications").How does the "substitution" take place "Red" for "Communist"; "Huns" or "Boches" for Germans; "Yids" for Jews convey the propagandist's animus against these groups. "From the atrocity stories against the Saracens during the Crusades and ridiculous tales of Belgian priests used as human bell-clappers, falsehood has always been part of the propagandist's stock-in-trade." (J. A. C. Brown; "Techniques of Persuasion, Propaganda and Communications")But how does this "falsehood" influence people Oliver Cromwell conjured up at pleasure terrible apparitions of agitators and levelers to frighten the respectable into supporting him. Napoleon Bonaparte used the Jacobin menace to stay in the saddle. President Bush exploited the Baghdad bogey to bolster up his position.
Indeed, James Thurber's "The Day the Dam Broke" seems to offer a salutary paradigm of Bush administration's policies on Iraq. In the short story, three men break into a preoccupied canter