They also sound the alarm (usually church bells) if there was emergency and to announce the time (Bradley, 2007).
From being firefighters, security services in the earlier times have gradually transformed into curbing of criminal activities that have become more sophisticated and become more organized over time. In the United States, the US Secret Service was instituted as early as 1865 to suppress counterfeiting of currencies (Secret Service History, 2007). To provide national intelligence to senior US policymakers, President F. Roosevelt established the Office of Strategic Services that was to become The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (History of the CIA, 2007). The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon by terrorists have spurred Pres. George W. Bush to from the Department of Homeland Security to protect Americans from terrorist activities of organized groups such as Al Qaeda.
2.) Risk as defined by Webster's Dictionary is "possibility of loss or injury" or "someone or something that creates or suggests a hazard" (2007). It is widely used in different fields to suggest the possible loss and presence of danger. There are five types of security concerns: threat to life; to public health and safety; to property; to reputation, privacy and civil liberty; and to government and administration.
Tight security mTight security measures, such as body search and use of advanced gadgets that will detect arms and deadly weapons are needed to ensure the safety of life of a person in a building. Sharp senses and high-tech gadgets can also be used to curb life threats within the community.
Tight quarantine and medical inspection in airports and seaports should be implemented to ensure safety against medical threats. Constant campaign immunization campaigns of government and other health agencies are also important in preventing the spread of highly communicable diseases.
Installation of surveillance cameras and use of shoplifting detection tools are some of the methods used to prevent stealing and theft. Advanced security and anti-virus programs should also be installed in computers to prevent hacking and other data theft in cyberspace. In line with this, since most personal documents nowadays are stored in computers, constant update of Internet and other network security devices are also imperative in protecting one's privacy and reputation.
Gathering of data concerning destabilization, assassination, or terrorist threat is needed in government and administration security.
3.) Private security personnel have the task to "detect, deter, observe and report" any criminal activities or other security threats in the company or organization wherein they are assigned. Their main obligation is to prevent crime within the boundaries of their assigned place and to enforcing company rules and regulations. They can also use their power to make a citizen's arrest against a criminal offender. They are required to have training in the usage of weapons, such as batons, firearms and pepper spray. They are also often trained to perform clerical jobs, such as preparing reports and taking accurate notes concerning the status of compliance of the company's personnel he is working at. They are also provided with additional training to perform handcuffing and restraints; operate emergency equipments; and to perform first aid. Due to terrorist threats, most of them have undergone trainings in