In this section, we discuss major contributions of Weber to sociological theory. Weber is well known for his theory of bureaucracies,1 today each and every organization has adopted this structure, Weber highlighted the character of the ideal type of bureaucracy, in his theory he stated that an ideal type is characterized by specialization, hierarchical organization of offices and individuals, explicit rules, impersonality in the organization and finally the reward system is based on merit.
From his theory it is still significant in today's society whereby many organizations have adopted this form of organization, the reason why has been adopted is due to the fact that bureaucracies help in increasing efficiency and effectiveness of an organization. It helps in organizing a large number of people to achieve common goals, helps accomplish several tasks at the same time and finally, it helps reduce opposition in an organization.
Weber's theory on bureaucracies is important in understanding the society today, he also highlighted the factors that led to failure of bureaucracies and they include ritualism, ritualism refers to the existence of rules and regulation and people become obsessed to procedure, as a result people over time lose sight of the reasons for these rules and regulations in the organization.
Bureaucracies are also faced with...
However, despite the many critics of this theory by Weber it still helps to organize the society in such a way those organizations operate in the efficient and effective way.
Weber also wrote about religion, his work mainly focused on the Protestant theory of ethics which explains how religion transforms individuals and their behavior, according to this the Protestants they focused on trade and they did not allow involvement into leisure activities, protestants reinvested their profits into their trading activities and this is the reason why they were wealthy. This explains the society we are in today, religion plays a vital role in shaping individual behaviour and therefore Weber's work is still relevant today.
The other theory by Weber was on leadership, in his theory he identified three pure forms of leadership, they include charismatic domination, traditional domination and finally legal domination, his theory made a distinction between these forms of domination and they help in explaining the society we live in today.
Marx was a radical sociologist and well known for his theory of capitalism,2 he criticized capitalism and the way it shaped the society, according to him there exist two classes in the society which include the capitalist and the workers, according to him capitalist was the cause of the all the problems the workers were facing, he also stated that for there to be change there has to be a change in society form from a capitalist form into a communist form of society.
His theory of capitalism helps in understand society but is not relevant in today's world, this is because capitalism has become a legitimate way of life in the modern society, it is also evident in his theory that he stated that only two classes were existent in the society which is not true because there are those that are students in the society and cannot be categorized as workers or capitalist.