The need can be defined as feeling of lackness for something and human being tries (activities) to get lackness removed (satisfaction). Here, we can differentiate between needs and wants. While needs is more comprehensive and include desires- physiological or psychological, wants are expressed in a narrow sense and include only those desires for which a person has money and also the desire to spend money for satisfying the wants. There are many psychological needs, e.g., to get status in the organization, which do not come under the category of wants. Thus human behavior (activities) is caused by motives or needs, and motivation is the process of inducing persons to experience needs for certain desired behavior so that organizational efficiency is achieved. Various persons1 have defined motivation in their own words; however, the basic contents are the same.
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon, which generates within an individual. Needs are feelings in the mind of a person that he lacks a certain thing. Such feelings affect the behavior of the person.
2. Person in totality, not in part, is motivated. Each individual in the organization is a self-contained and inseparable unit and his all needs are interrelated. These affect the behavior in different ways. ...
2. Person in totality, not in part, is motivated. Each individual in the organization is a self-contained and inseparable unit and his all needs are interrelated. These affect the behavior in different ways. Moreover, feeling of needs is a continuous process; as such these create continuity in human behavior.
3. Motivation is the product of anticipated values from an action and the perceived probability that these values will be achieved by the action. The anticipated value is called 'value' and it is defined as the strength of a person's preference for one outcome in relation to others. The perceived
1Victor H. Vroom, Work and Motivation, New York: John Wiley, 1964.
probability is called 'expectancy' and it is defined as the strength of belief that a particular act will be followed by a particular outcome. Thus, motivational relationship can be expressed in the following formula.
Motivation = Valence x Expectancy
Motivation and Behavior
Motivation causes goal-directed behavior. Feeling of a need by a person causes him to behave in such a way that he tries to satisfy himself so that he does not feel the lack of that particular thing. This can be expressed in the following figure.
Motives (needs) Tension Wants Tension Behavior
(Release of tension)
Fig. 1. Needs cause behavior
A need, that is, the feeling that something is required, creates tension in mind and transforms itself into want depending upon environment. This tension is released when this particular need is satisfied by certain behavior again in the environment, that is, incentives exist to satisfy the needs. Behavior ends the moment tension is released. However, satisfaction of one need leads to feeling of another either of