The essay "Werber's and Durkheim's Approach to Sociology" talks about Weber's and Durkheim's liberal values - the concern for the free individual and the belief that individuals should participate actively in social life. Their common ideological commitments give away to two different analytic theories of democracy because of their different empirical assessments of the possibilities for individual freedom in modern society. Weber's pessimism promotes a formal theory of democracy; political inclusion is the central feature of modern democratic orders. Durkheim's faith in modern society leads to a substantive theory of democracy characterized by moral integration.
Max Weber is rightfully considered the father of political sociology. His writings on politics and society have provided, in large measure, the conceptual apparatus by which contemporary political sociologists, of diverse theoretical persuasions, have sought to comprehend varying political realities. His definition of the state as the institution possessing a monopoly of the legitimate use of force over a specifically bounded territory, his typology of traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal patterns of domination, and his concern for the relation between power and legitimacy have all been indispensable in our efforts to gain an understanding of the sociological sources of order and disorder in the modern world. If Weber occupies the theoretical center of political sociology, Emile Durkheim remains only at the field's periphery.