It has not been established that whether modernity is a useful or harmful phenomena, however it has brought remarkable changes in the global scenario in all the aspects of life. Modernity is a change from feudalism towards capitalism, secularization, industrialization and the formation of nation-states (Adams, Clemens and Orloff). Modernity is a change however this change is neither improvement nor decline, it is transition from one phase to another. Most of the technocrats argue that modernity brought about an overall improvement in the way human beings live on this planet because of all the technological improvements which are achieved through modernity however many scholars do not agree mainly because of the harmful aspects of industrialization and the disturbance in nature created by it (Neal). The cultural exchange and globalization of culture is also seen as an achievement of modernity but some people consider it a very bad thing to happen because cultural change usually happens with the loss of traditions established since very old times. Various social and psychological problems faced by people of different areas are due to the emergence of a global culture which is totally different from the culture of many regions of the world and thus the traditions are lost which creates problems for the native population. Sticking to traditions is important in a few scenarios but this approach also hampers development and progress, thus modernity tends to end established traditions but triggers advancement and improvement. Therefore modernity is a very complicated phenomenon and there are various factors and processes which are responsible for the emergence of modernity. The various historical stages of modernity include Renaissance (14th to 16th centuries), the Columbian Exchange (16th Century onwards), the Reformation (16th to 17th centuries), the Enlightenment (18th Century), the Revolutions of 18th Century (The French Revolution) and the Industrial Revolution (Late 18th and 19th Century). The Renaissance is not the part of modernity but it is the most significant era of human history which ultimately led to modernity. Renaissance brought about revolution in literature, science, art, religion and politics by reforming the classical ways of living. The Renaissance is deemed as a cultural movement because it has a very remarkable impact on the culture of Europe and significant progress was achieved in the fields of literature, philosophy, art and science in this era. During the early days of renaissance the scholars devoted themselves to researching in the fields of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics by utilizing the knowledge present in the books written by Greeks and Arabs, later most of the renaissance scholars focused on art and painting. In addition to the development of art and culture, renaissance scholars also focused on enrichment of religion in the lives of people and many works of art produced by the renaissance artists were patronized by church. Humanism and individualism are considered as the hallmarks of modernity and these two philosophies were a product of the renaissance (Rabb). Renaissance scholars introduced the concept of the superiority of human beings over nature and thus maintained that the various natural resources are only valuable if they are useful to human beings. Utilization of the natural resources for the development and growth of human beings was considered as the ultimate goal and all
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