For a person in late adulthood, his or her personality development according to the life course perspective is shaped by heredity, culture and social influences in the environment the person grew up in. If for example the individual grew up in an abusive home and unsafe environment their personality is likely to be antisocial as they just witness antisocial behavior all their life (Whitbourne, and Whitbourne, 2010).
The next life course perspective is on cognitive changes. Cognitive changes involve changes in the intelligence of the individual. The two types of intelligence in an individual change differently but the extent of change depends on exposure of that individual from childhood to different aspects of education and memory boosters. An individual who had continuous exposure to learning and a good learning environment during earlier years may take longer before his or her fluid intelligence reduces unlike an individual not exposed to a good learning environment (Novak, 2008).
Cognitive changes may also take place as a result of hereditary factors. If an individual is from a family of low achievers or those with a lower intelligence quotient, that person cannot have the same cognitive changes with an individual from a high intelligence quotient. The fluid intelligence of this individual may diminish later in the late adulthood but for the one with low intelligence quotient, it may diminish sooner.
When it comes to mental health in late adulthood, heredity plays a larger role than environmental factors. However some mental health issues are brought about by excessive drug use and abuse especially alcohol which depresses the nervous system hence slowing down mental processes in that individual. This therefore means that the life course of individuals who have an adolescent and early adulthood history of excessive drug use will have mental