trolled communication, sensitivity training, Freud’s hydraulic model, complex mirroring and conscious raising psychotherapy are experimented means in conflict resolution to dissolve conflict at both individual and general levels.
The natural cognitive sorting mechanism of dividing people into ‘us’ and ‘them’ engenders prejudice and in the long run, political violence. This perspective is typical to The Self and The Other concept in which people and groups are constructed to exclude the other or any entity that is perceived as foreign, and to include the self or other entities affiliated to the self. “Protracted social conflicts typically involve an enduring set of antagonistic perceptions and interactions between communal groups…negative attributions of motivations and reciprocal negative images perpetuate the antagonisms and solidify the conflict” (Fisher 1997). This concept breeds the antagonization of groups which turns one group against the other, deepening rifts and sharpening rivalry. Since this type of social cognitive process emphasizes differences between ‘us’ and ‘them,’ an elitism can arise which advantages one group over the other and fosters an unhealthy intergroup competition and mutual exclusion. With mutual degradation and demonized motives, each group continues to not only drift apart, but rub against each other in a frictional relationship to produce an aggression fire.
At the national level, the us and them dichotomy leads to jingoism which is a chauvinistic form of nationalism. This ideology promotes the suppression of one and the superiority of a people. Fanatical patriotism and the prejudiced belief propose that another party must suffer in the power imbalance. (Paris 2004) agrees that “exclusionary forms of nationalism also make enemies of excluded groups.” In other words, one nation categorizes, segregates and disadvantages another. As a consequence, the excluded party harbors resentment toward the opposing