This typology, however, is not cleanly cut along racial lines and forms of criminal activities. This paper compares and contrasts various organized crime groups in terms of their demographics, gender, ethnicity, criminal and financial activities, and socio-political interests.
According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (2012), organized crime in the U.S. can be divided according to dominant races or ethnicities. They are the following: Russian mobsters who fled to the U.S. in the wake of the Soviet Union’s collapse; Chinese tongs, Japanese Boryokudan, and other Asian crime rings; the Italian Cosa Nostra organizations; Balkan groups with links to Hungary and Romania; Middle Eastern groups with traditional criminal or terrorist links; groups from African countries, like Nigeria that engage in drug trafficking and financial scams; and biker gangs.
Russian organized crimes (ROCs) are composed of any ethnic group that came from Russia, such as Armenian, Chechen, Jewish, and Ukrainian individuals (Abadinsky, 2010, p.232). These groups developed in the United States in the late 1970s and became more widespread after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 (Finklea, 2009, p.21). McMullin (2009) studied the interdependence between organized crime and conflict. Chechen groups, for instance, reinforced conflict in Kosovo through manufacturing and selling illegal goods (p.88). In addition, like other criminal organizations, Russian mobsters have legal business activities that they use to clean their dirty money, and some Russian mobsters are philanthropists (Finklea, 2009, p.21).
Old style Russian criminals developed the culture of vor v zakone, which literally means a professional criminal with a good reputation in the underworld (Siegel, 2012, p.32). Like the Italian mafia, the vor v zakone has a code of conduct, or the ponyatiya, also called the “notions” (Siegel, 2012, p.32). Some of