Some of the societies despite high dependence on agriculture, they also practiced hunting and gathering or mixed farming (Inter-American Commission on Human Rights., & Organization of American States, 2000). Some of the indigenous people had chiefdoms; ruled by chiefs, states, as well as empires that had organized cities.
Colonization had a significant impact on these populations as it altered their ways of life completely. Within the first century, it is imperative that the population if indigenous communities diminished by between 80 to 90%, with disease being the major reason for the demise (Divina et. al, 2004). Smallpox, cholera and measles ravaged the continent having come with the Europeans. The losses from disease were worsened by massive killings of the indigenous people by the Europeans, who enslaved them and massacred the resistant groups. We also understand groups such as the Tainos adopted a suicidal behaviour and within a period of 30years, 70% of Tainos had died. The coming of the Spaniards and introduction of animals such as the horse had a profound effect on the lives of Native Americans, as some of them achieved great success through the domestication of the horse. For others, they achieved territorial control and expansion, changing the way indigenous people lived through increased trade, more horsepower during wars and easy game capture.
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights., & Organization of American States. (2000). The human rights situation of the indigenous people in the Americas. Washington, D.C: General Secretariat, Organization of American