In the theory, crime is directly related to ecological neighborhood characteristics. For example, in some subcultures, the neighborhood-disadvantaged children are encouraged to take part in delinquency and criminality in both cultural and social settings. The core principle of Social disorganization theory is that environment have a major role to play in that, one’s individual characteristic or one’s residential location (gender, age, race) aid in shaping the chances that an individual will associate with crime related activities (Bursik, 1988).
Miller & Gaines in their book, Criminal Justice in Action state, that in some communities crime mainly comes from unwanted situations. There are ecological factors in the social disorganization theory that in these communities lead to high rates of crime, these factors connected to constant raised levels of unemployment, high school dropouts, single-parent homes and deteriorating infrastructures. Not all forms of crime apply to this theory, but mainly to neighborhood level, street crime. It has not been implemented on the explanation of corporate crime, organized crime or deviant behavior that occurs outside neighborhood setups (Miller & Gaines, 2012).
Influential theory of community social disorganization by McKay and Shaw has never been tested directly. To solve this community-level theory is tested and formulated that mainly builds on Shaw and McKays original model. The general theory is that ethnic heterogeneity, low economic status, family disruption and residential mobility lead to community social disorganization, this in turn, increase delinquency rates and crime levels. Social organization in a community level is measured in terms of control of street-corner teenage peer groups, local friendship networks, and prevalence of organizational participation. Constructed from a 1982 national survey of 10,905 residents in Great Britain the model is first