The 20th century consisted of the most significant change in management theory. Taylorism developed in the early 20th century followed by fordism in the 1920’s and 1930’s (AMIN, 2011). The two theories of management were largely applied by manufactures in the 20th century. Nonetheless, since the 1970’s the use of the theories in production have been abandoned (Savall, 2010).
Taylorism is also commonly referred to as scientific management. It is one of the founding management theories in early management theory. Fredrick Taylor Winslow developed the scientific management movement in the belief that efficient and effective production was not based on making employees work as hard as possible but by inventing a way to optimize the operation. In his 1909 publication, The Principles of Scientific Management, he proposed that the optimization and simplification of jobs would increase productivity (Edgell, 2011). His proposal was correct based on its contribution to the success of industrialization in the 20th century. Furthermore, during this time, factory managers maintained little or no contact with the employees. There was no interaction or cooperation. Employees were left to complete their tasks unsupervised. There was a lack of motivation to complete tasks swiftly, effectively and efficiently. Most employees were motivated by continued employment. Taylor believed that workers’ motivation would increase if each worker was paid based on the amount of work he completed. He also conducted some experiments to discover ways to streamline production by making work easier, organized and equitable.
Taylorism largely contributed to the development of management and the industrial revolution. It principles were applied widely in Europe and Japan for many years. The cooperation that resulted between managers and workers teamwork which is much popularized today. Factories that used the principles increased their productivity