Marx faced hardships most of his life which led to his deterioration hence death. At his funeral, Engel spoke bravely about his theoretical insights into capitalist society and revolutionary mission (Adams & Sydie, 2001, p. 23). After his death, Engel developed new editions of his old work such as Manifesto, and he published his works such as Critic of the Gotha Programme and Thesis of the Feuerbach (Adams & Sydie, 2001, p. 23). There are four types of alienation, according to Marx’s theory. These are alienation from the product of labour, alienation from activity of the product, alienation from the species being, and alienation from one another.
In alienation from the product of the labourer, the product objectifies itself and becomes estranged to the labourer or producer. It becomes a power independent of the producer (Marx, 1971, p. 134). The product of labour solidifies itself to an “object”; it is the realisation of labour and the worker losses reality as it appears. The worker can lose his reality to the point of death due to starvation. Objectification can make the worker lose the objects necessary for his life, and the objects of work as well (Marx, 1971, p. 135). The labour also becomes an object of the worker and its power is realised by the labourer’s efforts at irregular intervals. As the product transforms to become an object, the labourer becomes alienated to the object; the demand for the object increases thus the worker possesses less and the product dominates him.
The realisation of the product leads to the externalisation in activity of the product. Externalisation of the product happens when the labour is exterior to the worker; the labour is not part of the worker’s essence (Marx, 1971, p. 137). The worker cannot confirm himself to the labour and becomes miserable. Thereafter, his physical and intellectual energy deteriorates, and his body is