Using a longitudinal sample from a database, the author sought to investigate effects of high-level engagement in extracurricular activities and noted that while a majority of students does not engage in the activities, only a small percentage engage at high levels. The high-level engagement is associated with positive academic outcomes though the outcome decrease at extremely high levels of engagement.
Holland, Alyce, and Andre, Thomas. “Participation in extracurricular activities in secondary school: What is known, what needs to be known?” Review of Educational Research 57.4(1987): 437-466. Print.
The authors conducted a literature review on effects of extracurricular activities on adolescents development and identified positive correlation between participation in extracurricular activities and self esteem, inter-racial interactions, social engagements, academic performance, inspiration, and self control, but negative correlation with delinquency. No causal relationship was identified.
Shulruf, Boaz. “Do extra-curricular activities in schools improve educational outcomes? A critical review and meta-analysis of the literature.” International Review of Education 56.5-6 (2010): 591-612. Print.
Shulruf conducted a literature review with the aim of identifying elements of extracurricular activity engagement that improve academic outcomes. The author reported low effect sizes of the considered extracurricular activities, with student council participation recording the highest effect size of 0.47 on GPA. A majority of the activities reported weak effect sizes of lower than 0.20 and causal effect could not be