Randomization works by ensuring that all patients’ chances of getting the treatment under study is the same and by generating comparable groups of intervention that are similar in all aspects of importance other than the intervention received by each group. The most rigorous means of finding out the existence of a cause and effect relation between a dependent and an independent variable or for determining the cost effectiveness of a treatment for a certain outcome is randomized controlled trials. An experiment is a kind of investigation which involves scientific testing of a hypothesis. Experiment includes manipulation of an independent variable and measurement of a dependent variable. In simple experiments, researchers tend to find out whether administering a medicine causes the symptoms to improve or not. Therefore, such studies encompass random assignment of the research participants to either of the two groups. One of these groups receives no treatment and is called as the control group whereas the other group which receives the treatment is termed as the experimental group. It is the presence of both control group and experimental group which makes experiments the best method of determining cause and effect relationship between two variables. Experiments not only show what happens when a certain treatment is given, but also depict what happens when the same treatment is not given. Furthermore, experiments employ the use of inferential statistics to determine the meaningfulness or reliability of the results since the outcomes might be affected by a range of factors particular to the individual research participants. Most experiments include a mechanism of controlling the extraneous variables from affecting the outcome of the treatment. Inferential statistics includes drawing inferences about a population on the basis of measures taken from a sample which represents that population. Experimenters
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This means that a random sample is selected from the population. Randomization involves random allocation of the units of experiment across the treatment groups. Biological experiments and…
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