The term Enlightenment is concerned with shaping human intellectuality towards the direction where people believe that progress is inevitable (Turner et al, 1998, p.2). The sociological theories study the society and its impact on the lives of people since people’s personalities are shaped by the social structure. Sociologists strive to study the social world from a scientific perspective by applying principles of science in order to propose constructive changes in the society that will lead to a better society. In this respect, the paper discusses two theories – the feminist theory with respect to Marx’s viewpoint and Marx’s theory of social class. Social Theory and Understanding the Social World Human beings when born are introduced into a pre-existing world with no previous notion of where and under what conditions they are born. People survive in a social world that shapes them independently of what they wish. Very soon they get adapted to their surroundings and other people who are their parents or siblings and learn to grow sympathy or antipathy towards them. It is this social world, and how people in their daily life try to adjust is the subject of study for sociologists. People are bestowed with a driving force to walk the journey from birth till death and on the way, they create their own social life. While some people have active control of their lives, there are others who are less skilled at it (Plummer, 2010, pp.2-3). From a sociological perspective, social life is a complex web of anger, frustration, pleasure, fascination, disappointment etc. Sociologists observe this awe-inspiring social world created by humans with all its joys and sufferings. People although get entangled in the complexity of social life nonetheless encourages the good things in society and strives to remove the bad things. Thus, sociology “becomes the systematic, skeptical study of all things social.” (Plummer, 2010, p.3) Positivism as in sociological principle is a doctrine that states that scientific theories must be applied for the study of the social world in the same manner as is done during the study of natural sciences. There are several objectives of scientific theories applied to the study of the social world. By the scientific study of the social world, general laws can be made to understand connections between different social events. It can also be revealed with the help of conclusions derived from experiments that social events do not align with any particular assumption. Another objective is to use quantifiable and measurable data to explain the intricate relationship between human behavior and social structures. There is also the fourth objective that includes applying the principles of scientific theories of the social study to construct proposals for bringing positive changes in the society to achieve a better society (Macionis & Plummer, 2012, p.17). The sociology of culture is the study of social life by understanding it as the amalgamation of a series of symbolic codes used by a society. These codes enable people to comprehend their personal lives and the role of external forces like the government, media, firms and other organizations. Cultural sociology is the study of people’s mode of thinking and acting, and all such material things that shape the lives of people.