Speaking about how cell phones work, Layton et al (2005) said: "On a "complexity per cubic inch" scale, cell phones are some of the most intricate devices people use on a daily basis. Modern digital cell phones can process millions of calculations per second in order to compress and decompress the voice stream." When dealing with all the features and uses of a cell phone, Layton et al (2005) stated the following: "What is amazing is that all of that functionality -- which only 30 years ago would have filled an entire floor of an office building -- now fits into a package that sits comfortably in the palm of your hand!"
But there are certain inconveniences regarding them. Many places like worship houses or churches, cinemas, theaters, hospitals, and other public places prohibit their use in order to avoid their distracting noises. There is legislation in many states against driving while talking on a cell phone (so hands-free cell phones are encouraged, and they are becoming more popular now). However, the most relevant concern against cell phones is related to radiation problems. In order to understand with certain depth this issue we have to know the basics of radiation, cell phones operation and the research that it is going on in the scientific community.
Cell phones are a combination of a radio and a telephone. As a telephone we can talk and listen to other people. As a radio it sends and receives messages through a transmitter-receiver using an antenna. The difference between a walkie-talkie or CB radio and a cell phone is that the cell phone uses two frequencies, one for transmitting and one for receiving, so people can talk and listen at the same time. The cell phones are called as such because "cell" is the term used by engineers to talk about the relatively small hexagon or area where a base station sends and receives the signals of cell phones in order to accomplish communication among them. A city, for example, is divided into many "cells" or "hexagons" with a base station for each cell so the cell phones operate at a low power level and the battery can be pretty small. In case we are talking on a cell phone while moving in a vehicle, the cells keep changing and the communication area also changes accordingly, so we have a continuous conversation without noticing the change in the cells. In case there are different signal providers, then we have what is called "roaming" and the charges to our bills can be very high.
The parts of a cell phone are the following: A circuit board containing the brains of the phone, an antenna, a liquid crystal display (LCD), a keyboard, a microphone, a speaker, and a battery. The transmitter-receiver in the circuit board produces the radiation associated with the cell phones when it encodes the voice into a signal or radio frequency wave.
Radiation is the creation of electromagnetic fields of energy. There are two kinds of radiation: natural and artificial or man-made