As the object of investigation complex system is a certain sphere of system investigation, which is chosen/selected, formed or created by person (expert) as the unit from the point of goal achievement. This system can be material object or some model of material or abstract object of investigation. In the first case, system - is a real object. Its technological or organizational structure is hierarchical, multilevel system of interconnected/interrelated, different- or single-type functional elements, which are concentrated in the certain space. The system of state power in different countries of the world may be given as example of real complex system with hierarchical, multilevel organizational structure. The same complex systems are wide spread in industrial, economic, social and other spheres. For example, real complex systems are: multi-profile industrial combine, railway system, telecommunicational network and other same material objects.
Erez Zadok (p. 69, 1994) pointed out that in the hot replacement of replicated read-only file system (with application to mobile computing) the developers described a mechanism for replacing files, including open files, of a read-only file system while the file system remains mounted; the act of replacement is transparent to the user. Such a "hot replacement" mechanism can improve fault-tolerance, performance, or both. This mechanism monitors from the client side, the latency of operations directed at each file system. When latency degrades, the client automatically seeks a replacement file system that is equivalent to but hopefully faster than the current file system. The files in the replacement file system then take the place of those in the current file system. This work has particular relevance to mobile computers, which in some cases might move over a wide area. Wide area movement can be expected to lead to highly variable response time, and give rise to three sorts of problems: increased latency, increased failures, and decreased scalability. If a mobile client moves through regions having partial replicas of common file systems, then the mobile client can depend on the mechanism to provide increased fault tolerance and more uniform performance.
According to MMIS project specialists, the Medicaid Management Information System (MMIS) is the claims processing system for Nebraska's Medicaid Program. In addition to processing claims, the MMIS also supports coordination of benefits, surveillance and utilization review, federal and management reporting, and case management. Without diving too deeply into significant problem areas of their past system (before using new MMIS) and the benefits of a new MMIS, let's just investigate the MMIS alternatives, which were analyzed (it can help us while designing new project):
1. MMIS Procurement: A replacement MMIS is transferred or developed by a vendor and maintained by state staff or the vendor.
2. In-House Development: A replacement MMIS is developed and maintained by State of Nebraska staff.
3. MMIS Replacement with Fiscal Agent Maintenance: A replacement MMIS is developed and maintained by a vendor. The vendor also performs all system maintenance and claims processing functions, including activities to manage providers.