As the object of investigation complex system is a certain sphere of system investigation, which is chosen/selected, formed or created by person (expert) as the unit from the point of goal achievement. This system can be material object or some model of material or abstract object of investigation. In the first case, system - is a real object. Its technological or organizational structure is hierarchical, multilevel system of interconnected/interrelated, different- or single-type functional elements, which are concentrated in the certain space. The system of state power in different countries of the world may be given as example of real complex system with hierarchical, multilevel organizational structure. The same complex systems are wide spread in industrial, economic, social and other spheres. For example, real complex systems are: multi-profile industrial combine, railway system, telecommunicational network and other same material objects.
Erez Zadok (p. 69, 1994) pointed out that in the hot replacement of replicated read-only file system (with application to mobile computing) the developers described a mechanism for replacing files, including open files, of a read-only file system while the file system remains mounted; the act of replacement is transparent to the user. Such a "hot replacement" mechanism can improve fault-tolerance, performance, or both. ...Show more