Norindr main concept that he examines deeply is modernity and he stresses that it has been an ongoing manifestation of the omnipotent cultural force, an incomplete project in the West. As a result, Norindr examines the active participants in the transformation to be the ‘modern subjects’ of the emerging modern societies who are negotiating imaginative ways; their place in the postcolonial spaces in some cities such as Saigon. In his film vision, he identifies Tran Anh Hung Film which, although it had been shot from a Vietnamese ‘aura’, the movie is a selection of Vietnam that had lost its traditional innocence. Prostitution, capitalism, and torture are what the filmmaker wants to debunk as being the clichés about Vietnam, similar to what has been conveyed in Vietnam Hollywood war movies. The film shows people living in hopes, ambitions, and frustrations engraved in a culture of crime, prostitution, and uncannily no respect for humanity. In his thesis, Norindr believes that the violence, capitalism, and misrepresentation of women in Tran Anh Hung Film is a manifestation of emerging modernity that has taken the shape of Western colonialism such as the crime business which is evident in the film.
Paul Narkunas is also critical about the life of frustration that has been experienced by the Vietnamese due to the influence of the West. Narkunas is very descriptive about the 1986 market liberalization in Vietnam and directly begins his analysis by describing Tran Anh Hung Film. Narkunas examines the economic transition of an eighteen-year-old cyclo, and the camerawork emphasizes on the diagramming of flow of money and bodies.