In the corporate world, ethics would relate to the manner in which businesses conduct themselves in relation to societal moral principles. Every business should ensure that it conducts itself within the precepts of ethical standards available. Fieser and Moseley in their book, ‘Introduction to Business Ethics’ describes three fundamental theories in ethics under which businesses should be able to run their activities (Fieser & Moseley 4). 1. Summary of the ethical theories The first theory identified in the chapter is the theory of moral objectivism as championed by Plato - a Greek philosopher – who related morality to spiritual realities. This theory categorizes morality into three components, which are: morality is objective, moral standards are unchanging and moral standards are universal. According to the first category, moral standards exist in higher spirit realms completely distinct from the physical world and not creations of human beings or human societies. The second category perceives moral standards as eternal as they apply regardless of where one is on the world. This aspect doe not recognize changes in location or time as having effects on the moral standards practiced by human beings. The third category identifies the universality of moral standards as not considering issues such as race, gender, or even social status of individuals. Based on Plato’s views, the universe is two-tiered – lower physical level and higher spiritual level (realm of forms) and has nothing permanent on it. Moral standards also exist in a realm of forms that are highest. This appeal gives the sense of moral stability. The first theory is contrasted by the second theory – theory of moral relativism – having three features, as well including morality is not objective, moral standards change, and that the moral standards are not universal. The first feature categorizes moral standards as pure inventions by human beings while the last feature argues that the application of the moral standards depends on the preferences of individual human beings and not eternal truths. Defenders of this theory are skeptic of the existence of similar views as those of Plato’s higher realm of forms. The third theory is known as the divine command theory, which answers YES to the question whether God is the creator of moral values and standards. According to the theory, God creates the values based on no prior reasoning or logical standards but pronounced based on pure acts of will. However, this theory is faced by two main challenges. First, non-believers would reject the theory’s presumption on the existence of God. Furthermore, believers themselves hold on the belief of the existence of God from an aspect of personal faith and not having any absolute proof. Second, the moral standards if not based on any prior reasoning standards would imply that they are arbitrary having been made purely from scratch. 2. Constructing companies based on these theories In the business field, companies may be more motivated to act moral basing on the three theories above mainly on the desire to avoid tarnishing the name of the company, avoiding heavy fines and to avoid lawsuits. A company may choose to base their operations on one or all of the above theories. One significant approach by which companies can practice this is through the adoption of a utilitarianism theory of morality. A utilitarianism moral theory in normative ethics is based on the acknowledgment of an individual’
Ethics involves systematization, defense, and recommending of the wrong or right concepts as rules of conduct that govern and are recognized by a particular culture. It would also refer to the system of moral principles that analyses and governs the conduct of individuals…
Briefly if we explain Act Utilitarianism it necessitates that we look to non-moral outcomes of actions as simply a suitable method to put together moral decisions. In fact, act utilitarianism can spotlight on some sort of non-moral good like a suitable objective, the most leading appearance of utilitarian theory guides us to perform in an attempt to achieve the maximum contentment possible (LawAndBioEthics; Utilitarianism; Utilitarianism2).
It’s a quantitative and reductionist view of life as related to the greatest happiness for the largest number of people. It came to be associated with the liberty versus harm principle where as a person’s happiness is subject to whatever doesn’t cause harm for most people.
Though his sales records show mediocre performance, many people working under him have set sales records. In addition, he is considered as a hardworking and loyal employee, and as he is nearing retirement, many people think he deserves the promotion. Another candidate was Rachel, 37, an African-American divorcee mother of two children, who is struggling to make her both ends meet.
There are arguments that an organization has no right to interfere in personal affairs (Losey, 1993). This will be dealt with later in the arguments. However, the complaint from the female staff members on sexual harassment is a matter of concern for the organization which affects several stakeholders.
Although all the actions taken are considered to be self-interested actions, an egoist promptly demonstrates that people generally try concealing their decisive motives for the actions and such concealment is normally done for their own self-interest.(Kirkpatrick, 2006)
According to Hinman, L. (September, 2004), ethical egoism suggests that we should always act selfishly. It obligates us that what is proper is to act for our selves only and let others do their own. Psychological egoism asserts that we always act selfishly.
the intrinsic duty to do things which are intrinsically good; the outcomes of what one does is significant, although an individual is obligated to always take the correct action even if it results in the wrong outcomes (Rainbow, 2002).
It judges an individual by his/her
It is currently considered being a consequentialism, although when Anscombe initially introduced that word, it was meant to differentiate between consequentialism and "old-fashioned Utilitarianism". Utilitarianism claims that the moral of actions is
Physicians are thus accorded the responsibility to advise family members on the way forward in enhancing the quality of life of the patient; either under treatment or palliative care.
Medical practitioners have an ethical duty to
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