The recent financial crisis brought tsunami to banking industry globally resulting in the bankruptcy being filed by those who were considered as the leaders and looked upon by the world to make and formulate new banking strategies. The financial crisis also brought down the number of merger and acquisitions drastically from 15400 deals in 2007 to 9700 deals in the year 2009 amounting to approximately US $1800. Through review of various literatures, it has been found that merger and acquisitions has negative effect on deposit rates, net income rates, employment sector, top executives leaving their positions, economy, rate of growth, etc.
The recent financial crisis had tremendous effects on all forms of economies. Sunanda Sen (2008) states that current turmoil in the global financial market and its origin from the US financial markets from where it has spread to the whole world, has made it imperative to question the relevance and validity of the neo-liberal theory and policies relating to financial sector. The crisis which is also known as credit crisis and mortgage crisis was the result of deregulation and weak policies in the banking system. The impact of the economic crisis was such that international forum for discussions on the crisis had transformed from Group of Seven (G-7) to the Group of Twenty (G20) which included emerging market countries. (Dunaway, S. 2009) According to ILO Report (2009), the key contributor to the financial meltdown was the widespread use of leverage by financial institutions to pump up profits during the real estate boom. The leverage was considered to safe in rising markets and extremely profitable for the financial institutions as long as there were no problems underlying the MBS portfolios which started experiencing increasing delinquencies and foreclosures from early 2007. This resulted in decline of their values and prompted the banks that had leveraged earlier to ask their money back which gave rise to increasing losses, bankruptcy and were forced to merge with other institutions to survive. The financial crisis led to bankruptcy of those companies who were considered as market leaders in the industry like Lehmann Brothers, AIG, Merrill Lynch and also General Motors. Lamanda, C (2009) states that crisis has gripped the financial markets for two years exposing the inadequacy of the current regulatory and supervisory framework to deal with complex issues forcing many companies to merge with other companies in order to avoid bankruptcy whereas some companies that could not withhold the burden were taken over by the companies looking to enter in the market and expansion. Mody and Negishi (2000) stated that M&A activity is a market for corporate control which is motivated by private as well as regulatory incentives. Private incentives include imperfection and asymmetries in domestic products and capital markets, competitive environment of the market and differences in the tax system whereas regulatory incentives incluce variations in corporate governance and policy frameworks, towards foreign investment and ownership. The M&A's are further classified into two where the first type is mainly motivated by the past problems and