Piaget believed that the wrong answers revealed by children had significance differences between the reasoning of adults and children. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) was the founder of the Vygotskian framework of cognitive development. The elements of Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development include the role of social interactions, the More Knowledge Other, and the Zone of Proximal Development. The Vygotskian theory stresses that social interactions are critical in the cognitive development of children. Information-Processing frameworks are based on the perspective that mental processes undergo maturational changes during children’s development (McCartney & Phillips, 2011). Different cognitive theories of development bear diverse propositions about cognitive stages of development; however, these theories share some similarities concerning cognitive development of children during school years. The Piagetian Theory The Piagetian theory argues that children have the ability to construct and understand the world around them, and experience the difference between their existing knowledge and new information they acquire in the environment (Smith, 2008). The fundamental believe held by Piaget is that reality is a dynamic system characterized by a continuous change. This implies the conception of reality is viewed differently across the ages of development. Some stages of development are filled with imaginations of unreal world, while other stages of development consist of children having the real sense of the world. According to Piaget, the concept reality involves transformations and states. Transformation constitutes the manners of changes that a person undergoes during various stages of development (Smith, 2008). States are the conditions and appearances that characterize developmental stages as they are viewed between transformations. Piaget developed six stages of cognitive development that change as children grow (Bremner and Lewis, 2006). The stages include sensory motor (birth to 2 years), pre-operational stage (2 to 5 years), concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years) and formal operational stage (above 12 years). Children develop various cognitive activities as they undergo these stages. The Concepts of Assimilation, Accommodation, Equilibration and Conservation in Piaget’s Theory Assimilation Assimilation describes the process through which the human mind perceives and adapts to new information. Human beings take in their environment and the new information available and attempt to fit it into the pre-existing cognitive schemas. The human mind tries to make sense of the new learning by referring to be previously acquired information in order to make sense of it (Bekoff, Allen & Burghardt, 2002). The concept of assimilation declares learning a continuous process. The theory also reveals that prior information is crucial in understanding new information. This implies that children who have some concepts of knowledge find it easier to acquire additional knowledge than those who do not have any knowledge. Accommodation According to Johnson, Munakata and Gilmore (2009), accommodation involves taking new information from the environment and adjusting the current schemas to fit in the new learning. Accommodation describes the ways through which human beings continue to interpret new theories, frameworks, and schemas. The mind is adaptive enough to allow proper mental adjustments to accommodate the new learning
Psychological Theories of Learning Name: Course: Professor: Institution: City and State: Date: Psychological Theories of Learning Introduction Psychologists have advanced various theories to explain the process of cognitive development and learning experiences in children during the years of schooling…
This analysis should not just depend on the person’s perception of the proponent of the theory, but it must account for evidence of effectiveness and efficiency of application of the theory. There are numerous psychoanalytic theories for use in a diagnostic, preventive and intervention setting including theories proposed by Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939), Carl Jung (1875 - 1961), and Carl Rogers (1902 - 1987).
These studies not only help educational institutes but also are also helpful for parents in doing better upbringing of their children. Some renowned contribution has been done by the following three major psychologists. Lev Vygotsky Vygotsky has done substantial contribution in understanding what influences the behavior and mentality of children.
Social Presence Theory asserts that CMC, being text-based, cannot provide the same quality of human interaction because of the lack of physical presence in online communications. As a result, CMC communication becomes impersonal and focused on tasks and individualization.
Like energy, indeed, information has become ubiquitous as a commodity and, like energy, inescapable as an idea. The thesis that the human mind is nothing more than an information-processing device is now widely regarded as a fact. (Berlinski 2001, p. 17)
This is significant, because researchers, educators, and psychologists will surely develop, test, or apply different and new theories.
One of the theories that were developed in the last century and ranks as one of the best is information processing theory.
Recognizing the changes in your surrounding such as people trying to cross the street, the car behind you, changing red light to green, and many other transformation help us to adjust in a certain way and act accordingly. There many issues involving change-detection
This method is fast gaining ground due to its high variability, and more universality than the traditional one mode or one plane thinking models of the brain.
The single most significant feature of the human mind that gives it precedence over other forms of life as well
There are two theories that this paper endeavors to focus on: The first one is Abraham Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Five Needs” theory and the second one is McGregor’s Theory X and Y. Dating back into the 1950’s great theorists like Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor had drawn up an ideology that revolutionized the motivational management sphere into a comprehensive and remarkable one.
The neo-Piagetian theorists agreed with the core of Piaget’s theories (the stages) but also placed attention on non-psychological influences such as biological, social, and cultural factors, making their developmental approaches
While Freud’s psychosexual stages were largely discarded as unscientific, in their place emerged Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, as well as the Core Knowledge theory of development. These theories emerged with the abandonment of
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