At the same time, it is important to understand student behaviors so that teachers can anticipate them as well as motivational strategies to sustain the student’s attention and engagement. Dawson (2009) contends that motivation comes from enjoying tasks and the desire to achieve the goals one has set for himself. For students, getting good grades, pleasing their parents and teachers and having a commendable school record for future use in the pursuit of higher education are just some of the goals they may have. Three kinds of goal orientation were explained by Brown and Hunning (2010). The first is learning goal orientation. This is when an individual is motivated by learning something new that benefits him by improving himself. The second goal orientation is called performance-prove orientation. This is when an individual performs well so that he can attain a reward like high grades. He does everything go beyond expectations in order to prove himself worthy of his high grades and gain the approval and respect of others. Finally, the third goal orientation is known as the performance avoid orientation. This motivates an individual to perform well in order to avoid punishment such as failing an academic subject. Like negative reinforcement, the individual’s goal is to avoid punishment in the form of reprimand or disapproval, so he tries his best in the performance of his tasks. A student with a learning goal orientation will be satisfied in what he does due to the learning he derives from it. One with a performance prove orientation will constantly put his best foot forward just so he gets rewarded for his performance and gets upset when he is not. In contrast, an individual who has a performance avoid goal orientation keeps on worrying about committing errors that the thought itself debilitates him in reducing satisfaction in his tasks. Brown and Hunning (2010) recommend the learning goal orientation to be propagated in organizations since it promotes the best outcomes. Brown and Hunning’s goal orientation theory may be paralleled to the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theory wherein learning goal orientation is likened to intrinsic motivation and performance-prove and performance-avoid goal orientation are likened to extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theory is a dualistic theory where the intrinsic motivation theory referred to an inner motivation that gives the individual a sense of fulfilment. The extrinsic motivation theory referred to external motivation such as rewards or approval from other people. The intrinsic motivation is known to be more effective in an individual’s retention in his or her work (Deci & Ryan, 1985). In the case of motivating students, especially adolescent boys, to be more engaged in their school tasks, teachers should take into consideration their general nature and behaviour and the effective ways to help them perform better in school. Adolescent boys are more into tasks that promote fun and creativity as well as collaborative and competitive activities. They should engage their senses and bodies in the learning process and not be limited to passive listening and writing. Classroom management techniques should be selected well in order to facilitate smooth classes and optimize student learning. Section 2: Focus This school based research will explore ways to motivate a group of Year 8 boys in a Modern Foreign Language class (French language) in
Motivating Class Engagement in Adolescent Boys in a French Language Course Section 1: Introduction In most classes, especially in those where adolescents attend, there are some students who may be restless and inattentive to lessons, causing disruption to the attention and engagement of their classmates…
A Common Question Recruiters Ask Prospective Candidates Is How They Would Motivate Their Staff. Critically Debate How Employees Can Be Motivated Relating Your Answer to Theories, Practice, and Your Experience If Applicable Table of Contents 1.0.Introduction 3 2.0.Literature Review 4 2.1.Traditional Motivational Theories 4 2.2.Contemporary Motivational Theories 5 2.3.Success Factors on Motivation Processes 8 3.0.Use of Motivation Theories in Construction Management 9 3.1.Factors Considered 10 3.2.Challenges 10 3.3.Applied Theories 11 4.0.Critical Analysis 14 5.0.Conclusion 17 References 18 1.0.
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For instance, the author has chosen to use paradox to show the theme of survival. Paradox is
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