How to teach children and adults has long been one of the most problematic issues for scholars. Dozens of theories and models were developed, to explain human cognitive development and apply this knowledge to improve various systems of learning and knowledge delivery in educational settings…
How to teach children and adults has long been one of the most problematic issues for scholars. Dozens of theories and models were developed, to explain human cognitive development and apply this knowledge to improve various systems of learning and knowledge delivery in educational settings. The current state of educational science is associated with relative flexibility of the learning approaches and openness to the improvement and implementation of the new theories and ideas. In the meantime, older systems of education and cognitive development are being constantly analyzed and improved. Cognitive apprenticeship models are rightly considered as some of the most complicated, controversial, and simultaneously, most productive models of cognitive development and learning. The model exemplifies an essential element of the social constructivist paradigm in learning, emphasizes teamwork, and treats scaffolding as an essential element of the process of training. The apprenticeship model of learning is associated with numerous problems and limitations, including the lack of connectivity with the real-life conditions and the problems, implementation difficulties, and even the risks of distress and dissent in learners. Despite its limitations, cognitive apprenticeship model provides unique learning opportunities and can be readily applied in a variety of learning settings.Cognitive apprenticeship is a widely-known form of social learning, which helps novices to become experts in their field of study/ professional development (Dennen 2002). Rooted in the principles of social constructivism, cognitive apprenticeship is a model of social learning, which relies on scaffolding and provides structure and examples to be followed by learners (Dennen 2002). Apprenticeship has long been applied for teaching nurses, constructors and legal professionals (Dennen 2002). Today, cognitive apprenticeship is one of the most popular models of cognitive development and learning in young and adult learners. Social constructivism suggests that the cultural and social context play the dominant role in how knowledge is constructed and understood (Dennen 2002). Developed by Collins, Brown, and Newman in 1989, the model has become one of the basic elements of cognitive development and knowledge delivery in various educational and learning settings. According to Collins, Brown and Newman (1989), “cognitive apprenticeship embeds the learning of skills and knowledge in their social and functional context” (p. 454). From the standpoint of social constructivism, cognitive apprenticeship represents the model of learning and knowledge transmission, which treats guided experience, cognitive, and metacognitive elements as the principal factors of the learning process (Collins, Brown & Newmans 1989). Legitimate peripheral participation and situatedness are at the core of the cognitive apprenticeship model (Lave & Wagner 1991). In simple terms, cognitive apprenticeship implies that learning occurs through the learners’ participation in authentic situations/ settings (Lave & Wenger 1991). Such participation and engagement in practical environments foster the development of transferable, relevant knowledge more than other models of knowledge dissemination (Collins, Brown & Newman 1989). However, cognitive apprenticeship is more than merely the process of learning in authentic settings: rather, the success of cognitive apprenticeship models depends on how deeply learners are embedded into these authentic contexts (Wertsch 1998). It is imperative that the influence of various situational/ contextual factors be considered, whenever the quality and efficiency of such authentic settings are evaluated and ...
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