StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse - Assignment Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse

These morphemes imply some kind of a back and forth movement. ‘Reciprocity’ is also related to feedback, interaction and causality. In a speech situation when a speaker puts across his message, the hearer listens to it and signals that he has heard it. This is the feedback. This takes place constantly between the speaker and the listener, and there is interaction among them. The response of a speaker depends upon what he hears. The speech is a cause and the response is the effect. Hence, there is causality involved in reciprocity.
2. Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse
A speech situation involves a speaker and a listener. “Reciprocity condition of speech refers to the relation between the speaker and the listener in the process of speech.” ( Bygate, 1987 ) Speech is a reciprocal activity. At this point, it is necessary to differentiate between speech and writing. The way language is organized in speech is different from the way it is organized in writing. In order to speak fluently, a speaker must have grammatical competency which includes knowledge of vocabulary, pronunciation, sentence structure and meaning. But speaking does not mean merely putting together words in a grammatical structure. The capacity to use language appropriately is called communicative competence. It is the knowledge that underlines the use of grammatical competence in communicative situations. Speech situation consists of various factors like topic, purpose, social relations, environment etc. These differ from culture to culture and community to community. In short, “speaking is not a discrete skill. It overlaps a number of other areas. Structure of conversation is culturally determined.” ( Hughes, R., 2002 ) Now let us look closely at what happens when two people speak. The speaker has a message which he encodes and transmits to the listener through speech. The listener listens to the speech and decodes the message. The listener then responds in the same way, by transmitting a message. Hence, the speaker becomes the listener and vice versa. An individual takes turns at being a speaker and a listener alternately. This is called ‘turn taking’. In a speech event, the participants are face-to-face and the turn-taking is a continuous process. Hence, we see that casual conversations are also organized by rules. People take turns at speaking and listening, they answer questions, mark the beginning and end of a conversation, make mistakes and correct themselves. All this needs some kind of direction and control on the part of the speakers. People do not say – I have finished now. You can answer my question. Conversations are organized covertly and the organizational principles provide a discreet interactional framework. It is within this framework that reciprocity takes place. “Reciprocity develops during the ongoing negotiation of meaning between speaker and listener, thus producing a joint construction of communication.” ( Byrne D., 1987 ) Reciprocity involves the use of turn-taking skills, strategies to interrupt and to control the topic, which are necessary to maintain meaningful interaction. During conversations, individuals follow norms like politeness principles and co-operative principles. They also reciprocate each others’ verbal and non-verbal behavior. In a social intercourse, people are obligated to help and not to harm those who help them. Social activity is also reciprocal and ubiquitous. The ability to appropriately reciprocate or compensate a partner’s communicative response is an essential element of communicative ...Show more


Before examining the concept of reciprocity as it applies to a speech situation let us look at the origin and meaning of the word ‘reciprocity’. It is derived from the Latin word ‘ reciprocus’, which means ‘alternating’. It contains the prefixes ‘re—‘ ( back ) and ‘pro-‘ ( forward ). …
Author : kaufderhar
Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the assignment on your topic
"Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Reciprocity and extensive reading
The demand and the challenge lie on what kind of activities teachers design for L2 classes. Activities designed for language classes particularly in speaking class must enable learners to maximize their speaking potentials. When teaching speaking skills, EFL teachers need to be particularly adept at organizing class activities that are authentic, motivating, and varied.
16 pages (4000 words) Assignment
Discourse on the Method
First, he starts by the concept of nothing. He later realizes that one cannot think in a vacuum thus there cannot be anything. Thereafter, Descartes asserts that, I am thinking, therefore I exist”. Through logical steps, Descartes makes some logical steps while he explores what he means by thinking.
3 pages (750 words) Assignment
Discourse of Meritocracy
Every society is characterized by divisions based on class even though they may not be visible. The name class according to Scott (2008: 51) has many definitions for various schools of thought; for instance, the economists would define it in terms of power and control while the sociologists would base it on occupational differences.
10 pages (2500 words) Assignment
Discourse Community Analysis
A discourse community can be any group of people interacting in a specific set of community. I have chosen my neighborhood as a discourse community to be discussed here.
4 pages (1000 words) Assignment
Concept analys
Concepts are formed from the understanding of men regarding certain phenomena. They produce ideas with connections from thoughts that become
2 pages (500 words) Assignment
Concept Paper
But for the development of leadership skills, both general and industry-specific, proper training and guidance is very important. The requisite training, however, is not provided by the companies to
6 pages (1500 words) Assignment
Discourse Analysis
The researcher in this project has observed biased attitudes toward aboriginals in a real-world health setting which sparked an exploration of discrimination against aboriginals in this field. Research uncovered that the impact of
11 pages (2750 words) Assignment
Marketing concept
This subsequently enables a firm to achieve growth that is sustainable in terms of revenues as well as profits. As Jimmy Iovine and Dr. Dre found creating consumer value was an essential strategy in ensuring that their brand was more successful than their competitors. This
4 pages (1000 words) Assignment
Concept testing
When kids are more successful in the classroom, then they are more confident and successful in their future, according to This confidence is needed by
1 pages (250 words) Assignment
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Assignment on topic Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
Join us:
Contact Us