Corporal punishment is often defined broadly as bodily punishment of any kind. Since this definition includes spanking as well as obviously abusive acts such as kicking, punching, beating, face slapping and even starvation. More specific definitions must be used to separate appropriate versus in inappropriate corporal punishment. Spanking is one of many disciplinary responses available to parents intended to shape appropriate behavior in the developing toddler and child. Child development experts believe spanking should be used mainly as a back up to primary measures, and then independently to correct deliberate and persistent problem behavior that is not remedied with milder measures. Spanking, as recommended by most primary care physicians (McCormick, 1992) is not violence by definition (“exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse”) (Webster Ninth New Collegiate dictionary, 1987). Parents who properly spank do not injure or abuse their child. Though the specific use of appropriate spanking has rarely been studied, there is evidence of its short term and long-term effectiveness. When combined with reasoning, the use of negative consequences (including spanking) does effectively decrease the frequency of misbehavior recurrences with preschool children (Larzelere & Merenda, 1994). In clinical field trails where parental spanking has been studied, it has consistently been found to reduce the subsequent frequency of non-compliance with timeout (Roberts & Powers, 1990). Spanking, as an effective enforcer of time out, is a component of several well-researched parent training programs (Forehand & Mc Mohan, 1981) and popular parenting texts (Clark, 1985). Baumrind (1973) in his study points out that "parents taking extreme approaches to discipline (authoritarian type using excessive punishment with less encouragement or permissive types using little punishment and no spanking) were less successful. He concluded from this study "did not indicate the negative reinforcement or corporal punishment per so were harmful or ineffective procedures, but rather the total patterns of parental control determined the effects of the child of these procedures'. The approach of balanced parenting by employing the occasional use of spanking, is advocated by several child-rearing experts. In the hands of loving parents spanking to the
In the paper “Spare the rod, spoil the child” the author analyzes the Christian concept of making children follow the rules laid down by people in authority. Another important purpose of the research is to get children to want to do what is expected of them…
To demonstrate the ineffectiveness of the Child welfare program, the author contends that 16 states in the country did not fulfill any of the seven federal childcare standards used to evaluate the efficiency of the program in the previous year. The author presents statistical data indicating that the rate of child abuse in the country increased in 2003 compared to 1990, mainly because of the government failure to enforce effective childcare policies in the country (Price 354).
The revised version of the book was published in 2005 by Perigee of Penguin Inc with hardcopy version having 322 pages (including index, appendices and glossary). In this book, Kranowitz has discussed symptoms, causes, risk factors, co-morbidities, diagnosis, treatment and a guide for parents and teachers for dealing with children having SPD.
Pulling herself up, she opens the drawers in the bathroom. Her mother's lipstick rolls around, curious, she grabs at the lipstick and trying to find out what it is begins to figure out how to open it.
Meaningful context in childhood development is giving the child a reason or understanding of what, why, or how they are doing something.
Clinton wrote the book to emphasize the importance of educating the children through the cooperation of the village (Stark 2006). During one of her 1999 public speech, Clinton said "community support is the key to valuing families" (Gail Sheehy in "Hillary," 2007).
Gruber and Voneche (1977) described this ongoing process as adaptation where mental representations or schemes are created and when exposed to the world, people try to adapt and accommodate past mental representations to include in their current experiences.
These are only the reported children or those who made it to the ER. Yet, some children who have been through all of these things are resilient and manage to survive and grow stronger. This paper will discuss a particular research done toward understanding this characteristic in some children.
The author Leonard Pitts, Jr clearly persuades using apt ethos, pathos and logos through out the article. He smartly gives examples on research data, compares orthodoxy & also gives logical reasoning to his explanation making it easy for us to evaluate the effectiveness of each use.
Most parents are more than willing to adjust to the changes; however, lives of the parents may change in ways that the new parents never expected.
The fathers expect to experience total exhaustion. Mothers get exhausted after they give birth to their first babies,
One of the common reactions to war is fear, where a child could be concerned about his or her welfare, as well as, that of active partisans in the war like the army. Kids may also experience an overwhelming sense of vulnerability hence loss of control thus showing uncooperative