This paper "A Comparative Study: Behaviorism and Cognitivism" compares behaviorism and cognitivism to determine how they are placed against each other in the present learning scenario. Learning pertains to both humans and animals…
J.B. Watson defined learning as a sequence of stimulus and response actions in observable cause and effect relationships (Learning Theories). It was Watson who coined the term “behaviorism”. In effect, behaviorism advocates that environment induces behavior in both humans and animals. This is best demonstrated by Pavlov’s (1849-1936) famous experiment with a dog. The stimulus and response items of Pavlov’s experiments are: Food (unconditioned natural stimulus), Salivation (unconditioned natural response), Bell (conditioned stimulus) and Salivation on hearing the Bell (conditioned response). Thus, naturally seeing food induced stimulus previous to conditioning. Upon regular conditioning the natural unconditioned response (salivation) became conditioned to a conditioned stimulus (ringing of the bell) even without the unconditioned natural stimulus (food). This is known as classical conditioning. (Brenda Mergel, Instructional Design & Learning Theory, updated 2001). According to Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) there are three laws that govern learning in animals, including humans. All the laws are set in their revised form as Thorndike later updated them.
The law of effect – When a connection between stimulus and response is positively or negatively rewarded a certain associative bond is formed in the brain.
The law of exercise – When the cause and effect of stimulus and response is frequently exercised the associative bond is strengthened. Nevertheless, Thorndike later revised this law to include feedback without which the strengthening may be weak. ...
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I will then explain how behaviorist B.F. Skinner might object to this methodology. Finally, I will address some possible responses to Skinner that Piaget could use to defend the scientific integrity of his experiments.
What were behaviorism’s main claims about psychology?
The concept of behaviorism arose in 1910s discarding all mentalist concepts like feeling, sensitivity, image, aspiration, reason, judgment and emotion. Behaviorism, “the study of observable behavior” (Coon & Mitterer 2008:23), drove the concept of psychology toward what an animal did or how it behaved in response to a certain situation.
All of these efforts are an attempt to answer such questions as to what the human mind is, and the nature of how people see, remember, perceive and even think. Other questions pertain to the ways in which human beings are more adept and intelligent than other animals.
There is no record of the birth and progress of the discipline of Psychology. But Psychology first appeared as a discipline around 1879 when the very first psychology laboratory in the world was established by Wilhelm Wundt in the University of Leipzeg in Germany.
Behavioral theory of learning deal with behavior transformation of students, cognitive theory of learning deals with brain knowledge while constructivist theory of learning deal with practical acquirement of knowledge by the students. All the theories are
atson in 1913, it is based on the concept that the behavior an individual possesses is a result of his observation, experiences and conditioning, and that the circumstances and the environment a person lives in are responsible for making him behave the way he does. Murray,
Learning theories have been helpful to educators for ages and they still extend the much needed help to the modern teachers. Theories may sometimes be proven to be ineffective however they still serve as basis for what one would indulge in his/her way of instruction. Behaviorism, one of the theories of learning, is the study of behaviors.
Stimulus and response were the main ingredients of behaviorism. The aim of behaviorists was to make the field of psychology very objective scientifically. They moved the psychologists away from introspection while
Behaviorism and cognitivism are the theories of learning that are concerned with the factors of knowledge acquisition. Though these approaches are conflicting, they may be easily combined: a teacher should pay attention
The learning approach lays emphasis on the human cognition which enables students to establish hypothesis as well as develop their intellect. It involves how students perceive ideas and acquiring knowledge owing to
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