As the paper stresses human aggression has largely been associated with social interactions in human populations. Cognitive aspects of people significantly affect the manner and level of aggression. Berkowitz’s neoassociation model describes frustration and other repugnant factors such as pain, discomfort and unpleasant situations among others as the causes of human aggression. They usually initiate aggression in human through the negative consequence.
As the study hinghlights the frustration-aggression model also portrays aggression as an outcome of frustration. Its occurrence is usually triggered by the presence of obstacles that prevent an individual from attaining his/her goal. In such a situation, aggression is usually a sequence of events that are focused on responding to the obstacle, which may result to injury of the person who is acting as the obstacle. A human being is rational and usually sets objectives with the goal of benefiting from his/her actions. Strategies are usually developed to ensure that there is no failure, which include fighting against obstacles such as fellow humans. It is therefore common to find aggressive behavior among frustrated people. Inward aggression may also exhibited by individuals when they are frustrated. It involves actions such as biting the finger, tongue and hitting hands on hard surface among other behaviors that result in injuring oneself although the pain may not be intense as interpersonal aggression.