A theoretical approach presents a position that regards the theory and practice of counselling. A school of counselling can be viewed as a grouping of different theoretical approaches, which are similar to each other in terms of fundamental characteristics, which distinguishes them from theoretical approaches in counselling schools.
The three main schools, which influence psychotherapy practice and contemporary counselling are usually separated into three overlapping and distinct traditions or schools of theoretical approach that have informed the practice of counselling. They are the humanistic school, the psychodynamic school and the cognitive/behavioral school (Greig, 2007).
The humanistic/existential school has its roots in the works of pioneers such as Rogers, Moreno, Maslow, Berne, Binswanger, May, Perls and Boss characterized by a belief in self-actualization and choice.
The humanistic school sometimes incorporate existential approach hence gets the broader title humanistic-existential school. It is based on humanism, a system of beliefs and values which emphasizes the better qualities of human beings and individuals’ abilities to develop their human potential. The humanistic counselors often emphasize enhancing clients’ abilities to reason and behave in harmony with their underlying habits to actualize themselves as unique characters.
Describing humanistic/existential approach to the development of mental disorders is a considerable challenge. Humanistic approaches in many aspects are philosophical in nature, speak to the nature of the individual’s condition, deal with values and prefer a holistic view of the person.
The humanistic/existential approaches evolved as a reaction to the determinism of the early models of psychopathology. Many psychologists were disturbed that Freudian theory did not touch on the inner world of the client but categorized the client according to preconceived diagnoses. They described a client in terms of psychic ...Show more